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Electronic Definitions (B)

[B] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter b that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

 

                                                                                                                       

Electronic Acronyms and Terms for [B] Description Other Electronic Terms Somewhat Related

B ISDN

The B-ISDN vision has been overtaken by the disruptive technology of the Internet. The ATM technology survives as a low-level layer in most DSL technologies.  

BAA

"British Astronomical Association"  

BABT

British Approvals Board for Telecommunications  

Back Off

- The process of reducing the input power level of a travelling wave tube to obtain more linear operation.  

Background Job

- is a job having a low priority within a multiprogramming system.  

Backing Store

- Is a means of storing large amounts of data outside the immediate access store.
Also known as secondary storage.

directory, dump, interblock gap, loader, mainframe, mass storage device, micro computer, overlay, paging, scratch file.

Backwards Compatible

- Compatibility of hardware or software to older versions of the product or standard. The amount of data that can be sent along a communications channel every second. In common usage it is often confused with bits per second. These days modem speeds are normally measured in bits per second.  

Baising

- Adding external voltage  

Band Width

- The range of frequencies occupied by a signal or passed by a channel  

Bands

aircraft: 109-136 mHz.
marine: 156-162 mHz.


surveillance, triple band lnb

Bandwidth

- A range of frequencies that a circuit will pass.

OR

- the difference between the two dominant critical frequencies of an amplifier. If the amplifier has no lower critical frequency, the bandwidth equals the upper critical frequency.

OR

- The amount of data that can travel through a channel in a given period of time. Bandwidth is usually measured in cycles per second (hertz) or in bits per second (BPS). The larger the bandwidth, the more information the network can handle.
 

Bank Switching

- Is a technique for overcoming the limitations of computers that can only address
a limited amount of immediate access storage. Several `banks` of storage are
provided each one occupying the same place in the computer`s memory map.
Only one bank may be active at any one time and the desired one is selected by
software. This technique is frequently used to provide a range of ROMbased
software within a microcoinputer such as a wordprocessor a spreadsheet and
a database any one of which may be used at a time. Software provided in this
way is sometimes known as sideways ROM.
 

Bar Code Reader

- Is an input device used to scan a pattern of lines using optical sensing
techniques. The line pattern is coded information about the item to which it
relates (e.g. the price and description of an item of merchandise).
 

Barrel Printer

- Is a line printer where the complete character set is provided at each printing
position embossed on the surface of a horizontal barrel or cylinder.
 

Barrier Potential

- The voltage across the depletion layer. This voltage is built into the pit junction because it is the difference of potential between the ions on both sides of the junction. It equals approximately 0.7 V for a silicon diode.

knee voltage, second approximation

Base

- The part of the telephone that is more or less stationary and connected to the main telephone lines. (See also handset.)

base band, base bias

Base Band

- The band of frequencies containing the information prior to radiation (and subsequent to demodulation).  

Base Bias

- The worst way to bias a transistor for use in the active region. This type of bias sets up a fixed value of base current.  

Batch Processing

- Is a technique in which computer processing does not begin until all the input (data and/or programs) has been collected together (i.e. batched).

transaction file

Batteries Alkaline

Type
alkaline (includes Manganese button cells). Manganese Dioxide

Common name
alkaline

Class
primary

Volts per cell
1.5

Characteristics
Good at low temp. Discharge voltage foils with usage. Good service for heavy duty high current usage. Lasts 57 times longer than carbon zinc.

Applications
High current drain radios shavers electronic photoflash movie and VCR cameras toys tape players clocks R/C models.
 

Batteries Button

Type
button

Common name
lithium manganese

Class
primary

Volts per cell
3.0

Characteristics
Good shelf life. Contains high energy density. Wide application temp. range (10F to 140F) suitable for heavy drain

Applications
Watches calculotors cameras measuring instruments electronic watches with backlight/alarm


Another definition of batteries button:
Type
button

Common name
silver oxide

Class
primary

Volts per cell
1.5

Characteristics
Flat discharge. Fair low temp. performance. Similar to Mercuric Oxide except provides higher volt /service capacity to volume ratio.

Applications
Hearing aids watches calculators instruments pagers reference voltage source.
 

Batteries Classification

alkaline
America Duracell Europe Japan
D MN1300 LR20 AM1
C MN1400 LR14 AM2
AA MN1500 LR6 AM3
9V MN1604 6LR61 6AM6
AAA MN2400 LR03 AM4
N MN9100 LR1 AM5

heavy duty
America Europe Japan
D LR20 UM3
C LR14 UM2
AA LR6 UM3
9V 6LR61 6UM6
AAA LR03 UM4
N LR1 UM5

rechargable
voltage america duracell europe
1.25 D NC13 RX20
1.25 C NC14 RX14
1.25 AA NC15 RX6
7.2 9V NC1604 RX22
1.25 AAA NC24 RX3
1.25 N NC91 RX1

button alkaline
voltage duracell depth dia
mm mm
lr44 5.36 11.56
lr43 4.19 11.56
lr54 3 11.56

button lithium
voltage duracell depth dia
mm mm
3 dl2032 3.2 20
dl2025 2.5 20
dl2016 1.6 20
 

Batteries Extra Life

Type
extra life

Common name
zinc chloride

Class
primary

Volts per cell
1.5

Characteristics
output at moderate/light use is 50% greater than carbon zinc. Good low temp. performance.

Applications
Motor driven toys cassette players/recorders radios clocks calculators.
 

Batteries History

- In 1789 Alessandro Volta put a zinc rod and a copper rod together in some acid. As the acid ate away (or reacted with) the zinc rod (the negative electrode) the copper rod (the positive electrode) captured the energy released from the reaction. That energy created a voltage between the rods. Voltage had been created in the wet battery! The first dry cell battery (like the ones we use now] wasn't developed until 1888 almost a hundred years later but it was based on the principles Volta had discovered. Todays general purpose batteries are more sophisticated. Even though they are dry cells they share many similarities with Volta's first battery. The outside of the battery is a can made of zinc. This is the negative electrode. The positive electrode is the carbon rod in the middle of the con. Between the electrodes taking the place of acid in Volta's battery are an electrolyte and something called a cathode mix. The battery produces electricity when the zinc can reacts with the electrolyte and and the electrolyte reacts with the cathode mix. As the three substances are used up the batteries voltage drops until it can't power anything known as a dead battery.  

Batteries Rechargeable

Type
rechargable

Common name
nickel cadmium

Class
secondary

Volts per cell
1.2

Characteristics
maintenance free hermetically sealed flat discharge valtage curve with usage Good high/low temp. performance. Resistant to shock and vibratian. Can recharge. High effective capacitance.

Applications
Portable power tools opplionces toothbrushes tape recorders radios and colculotors. Photoflash units portoble communication equip. R/C toys
 

Battery

- An electrochemical device that generates electricity through a chemical reaction. For telephones, batteries are used to back up internal memory if the main power is interrupted and to power cordless phones.

battery backup, battery n, battery pack, battery snap

Battery Backup

- Prevents loss of memory contents in the event of power failure.  

Battery N

1.5V

Alkaline
USA Duracell Europe Japan
N MN9100 LR1 AM5

heavy duty
USA Europe Japan
N LR1 UM5

rechargeable
USA Duracell Europe
N NC91 RX1
 

Battery Pack

- More than one battery cell hooked together inside a single package.  

Battery Snap

- Is the snap that connects a battery to the circuit.  

Baud

- Unit of data transmission rate based on number of teletype characters per second  

Baud Rate

- The speed at which digital information is passed through a serial interface expressed in bits-per-second. MIDI data is transmitted at 31.25 KBaud or 31,250 bits per second.  

BCC

"Block Check Character"  

BCD

"Binary Coded Decimal"  

BCH Code

"Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem" Code  

Beam Width

- The acceptance angle of an antenna usually measured between halfpower (3dB) points  

Benchmark

- Is a standard program used to compare the performance of different types of
computer
 

BER

- Bit Error Rate. Accuracy of digital demodulation or decoding. Analogous to SNR but refers to digital transmission.  

BERT

"Bit Error Rate Tester"  

BFWA

"Broadband Fixed Wireless Access"  

BGA

"Ball Grid Array"  

Bi-Directional Printer

- Is one where the righttoleft return movement of the print head is also used to print a second line thus increasing printing speed  

BiFet Op Amp

- an IC op amp that combines FETs and bipolar transistors, usually with FET source followers at the front end of the device, followed by bipolar stages of gain.  

BIG

"Broadband Integrated Gateway"

batteries, c guard, cctv lenses E-OK, surveillance

Binary Search

- Is a technique for locating a record in an ordered list by repeatedly comparing the key with the miditem in the list and discarding that half of the list which cannot contain the required record.  

Binary Tree

- Is one where any node may have no more than two branches.  

BIOS

"Basic Input Output System"

- Software routines that let your computer address other devices like the keyboard monitor and disk drives.
 

Bipolar Transistor

- A transistor where both free electrons and holes are necessary for normal operation.  

Bird

- Slang term for satellite  

BISDN

"Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network"  

BIST

"Built In Self Test"  

Bistable

- Is a device that has two stable states which can be used to represent 0 and 1  

Bit

- A binary digit. Smallest possible unit of digital transmission.

Another definition of Bit:
Binary digit the basic binary unit for storing data. It can either be O or 1. A Kilobit (Kbit) is 210 (1024 bits); and a Megabit is 220 which is just over a million bits. These units are often used for data transmission. For data storage Megabytes are more generally used. A Megabyte (Mb) is 1024 kilobytes (Kb) and a Kb is 1024 bytes. A Gigabyte (Gb) is 1024Mb. A byte (binary digit eight) is composed of eight bits.bug (See crash)
 

Bit Rate

- Speed of digital transmission measured in bits per second or multiples (kilobits megabits per second).  

Block

- An 8 x 8 matrix of PIXELS (or 64 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients).

block diagram, blocking factor

Block Diagram

- Is a diagram made up of squares or rectangles labelled to represent different
hardware or software components and lines showing their interconnections.
 

Blocking Factor

- Is the number of records in a block  

Bluetooth

- Cable replacement technology founded by Ericsson, IBM Intel, Nokia and Toshiba. it works using the unlicensed 2.4GHz short range radio frequency and is sill in development - products expected to emerge end of 2000.  

BND

- German equivalent of mi6  

BOM

- Bill of materials or list of parts for an assembly  

Boot

- Short for bootstrap.

Refers to the process when a computer loads its operating system into memory. Reboot means to restart your computer after a crash either with a warm reboot (where you press Ctrl Alt Del) or a cold reboot where you switch the computer off and back on again.

bootstrap

Bootstrap

- Is a short sequence of instructions used for loading a program to start up the
computer normally held in ROM and activated when the machine is switched
on.

This process is sometimes referred to as booting.
 

Boresight

- The centre of an antenna beam usually the direction of maximum gain  

BORSCHT

- An acronym representing the eswntial features of a telephone exchange: Battery Over-voltage Ringing Supervision Coding Hybrid and Test.  

BPS

Bits per second (b/s).  

BRA

Basic rate access (ISDN)  

Breakdown Region

- For a diode or transistor, it is the region where either avalanche or the zener effect occurs. With the exception of the zener diode, operation in the breakdown region is to be avoided under all circumstances because it usually destroys the device.  

Breakdown Voltage

- The maximum reverse voltage a diode can withstand before avalanche or the zener effect occurs.  

Breakover

- When a transistor breaks down, the voltage across it remains high. But with a thyristor, breakdown turns into saturation. In other words, breakover refers to the way a thyristor breaks down and then immediately goes into saturation.

Largest do output voltage with the smallest ripple.
 

Breakpoint

- Is a temporary halt inserted in a program in order for the program mer to inspect
the contents of registers storage locations etc. to aid debugging.
 

BRI

"Basic Rate Interface" (ISDN)

bridge networks, bridge rectifier, bridging, brisc

Bridge Networks

- A set of diode devices interconnected for a specific electrical function  

Bridge Rectifier

- The most common type of rectifier circuit. It has four diodes, two of which are conducting at the same time. For a WEN transformer, it produces the largest dc output voltage with the smallest ripple.  

Bridging

- The connecting of two or more circuit points with solder alloy.  

BRISC

"Bipolar/BiCMOS Reduced Instruction Set Computer"  

BRNN

"Bi-Directional Recurrent Neural Networks"  

Broker's Call

Feature of a PABX allowing a user to make a call to an internal extension during an outside call and to switch between the two while maintaining privacy.  

BS

"British Standard"

bsc, bsi, bsig, bsp

BSC

"Binary Synchronous Communications"  

BSI

"British Standards Institute"

bsig

 

BSIG

"Blue-tooth Special Interest Group"  

BSP

"Board Support Package"  

BT

"British Telecom"  

BTAM

"Basic Telecommunications Access Method"  

BTSC

"Broadcast Television Systems Committee"  

bubble store

- Is a form of memory in which data is stored by magnetising very small elements
called bubbles. Bubble memories can store enormous amounts of data in a very small volume.
 

Buffer Amplifier

- This is an amplifier that you use to isolate two other circuits when one is overloading the other. A buffer amplifier usually has a very high input impedance, a very low output impedance, and a voltage gain of 1. These qualities mean that the buffer amplifier will transmit the output of the first circuit to the second circuit without changing the signal.  

Buffering

- Is the use of a store area (buffer) to temporarily hold data being transmitted
between a peripheral device and the central processor to compensate for
differences in their working speeds. Buffering can also be used between two peripheral devices.
 

Bug

- Is an error in a program or at fault in equipment

buggy

Buggy

- Is a motorised device on wheels which is connected to a computer and can be made to move under the control of a program which accepts feedback from the
sensing mechanisms on the buggy such as photoelectric cells.
 

Bulk Resistance

- The ohmic resistance of the semiconductor material  

Bursting

- Is to separate continuous stationery  

BUS

- Is a common pathway shared by signals from several components of the
computer (e.g. all input/output devices would be connected to the I/0 bus).
Also called a highway.

Another definition of bus:
A "data highway" which transports data from the processor to whatever component it wants to talk to. There are many different kinds of bus including ISA EISA MCA and local bus (PCI and VLbus).

eisa, isa, mca, pci, s100 bus, samba, usb

Butt

- A telephone with various connection adaptors for testing purposes.  

Butterworth Filter

- This is a filter designed to produce as flat a response as possible up to the cutoff frequency. In other words, the output voltage remains constant almost all the way to the cutoff frequency. Then it decreases at 20n dB per decade, where n is the number of poles in the filter.  

Bypass Capacitor

- A capacitor used to ground a node  

Byte

- A digital word usually consisting of eight bits. A byte is eight bits grouped and considered a unit. There are seldom used associated terms used in conjunction with byte. A nybble is half a byte, or four bits. As was determined in the '20s, half of a nybble, a quarter (of a byte) or 25 cents, is two bits. A word is two bytes, or sixteen bits; a large word is four bytes, or 32 bits.

bit

 

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