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Electronic Definitions (P)

[P] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter p that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

 

Electronic Acronyms and Terms for [P] Description Other Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;

P-Type Semiconductor

- A semiconductor where there are more holes than free electrons  

PA

"Public Address"

pac, packet switching, packing, packing density, pad, paging, palette, pam, panda, panel, panelization, paper tape punch, paper tape reader, paraboloid, parallel processing, parallel running, parameter, parastic oscillations, parity bit, parity check, pars, parsing, partition, partitioned cluster, pascal, passport photos, password, patch, pause

PAC

"Programmable Analog Circuits"

packet switching, packing, packing density

Packet Switching

- Communication using a channel shared by multiple users, silent periods between a sender and receiver are filled with data from other user pairs

x25

Packing

- Is the compression of flies and folders in order to save storage space)

packing density

Packing Density

- Is a measure of the quantity of data that can be held per unit length of track on a storage medium.

 

PAD

"Packet Assembler / Disassembler Device"

graphics tablet, test pad, via pad

Paging

- Is a technique in which the main store is divided into segments called pages. Large user programs may cover several pages possibly too many to fit into the available store.

Another definition of paging:
(1) Allows alert signal to be transmitted from base to handset of a cordless telephone (but not speech)
(2) Allows gcmral announcement to be made from any extension of a PABX
(3) Onsite paging uses a radio transmitter so that holders of appropriate receivers can be alerted anywhere within range of the transmitter within a budding or small complex for instance
(4) National paging relies on radio network so that holders of appropriate receivers can be alerted anywhere in the country
 

Palette

- Is the range of display colours available in a computer system  

PAM

"Pulse Amplitude Modulation"  

Panda

- Noise reduction system devised by Wegener (originally used for transmissions)  

Panel

- A substrate with specific features furnished for direct assembly machine processing

panelization

Panelization

- Combining two or more substrates on a single panel for direct assembly machine processing  

Paper Tape Punch

- Is an output device that punches data into paper tape  

Paper Tape Reader

- Is an input device that reads punched paper tape  

Paraboloid

- A parabola of revolution. Classical shape of antenna reflector.

offset fed antenna, prime focus, shaped reflector

Parallel Processing

- Is the simultaneous operation of a computer on a number of tasks. To achieve this several processors may be provided in the same computer.  

Parallel Running

- Is a stage in the implementation of a new computer system during which the new and old (possibly manual) systems are run simultaneously to facilitate a trouble-free handover  

Parameter

- Is the name or value made available to a subprogram (e.g. a subroutine or procedure) from a calling program or vice versa  

Parastic Oscillations

- Oscillations of a very high frequency that cause all sorts of strange things to happen  

Parity Bit

- Is a binary digit appended to binary data. The state of the bit is such as to ensure even or odd parity as appropriate.  

Parity Check

- Is a test applied to binary data to check for even or odd parity as appropriate  

PARS

"Private Advanced Radio Service"

parsing

Parsing

- Is the breaking down of high level programming language statements into their component parts during the translation process (e.g. identifying reserved words and variables)  

Partition

- Separation of circuit functions or power and ground area

partitioned cluster

Partitioned Cluster

- Electrical functions separated to accommodate isolated testing of circuit parts  

Pascal

- Is designed to encourage structured programming

pcode

Password

- Is a sequence of characters that must be presented to a computer system before it will allow a user access to the system or parts of that system  

Patch

- Is a small fragment of code provided by a software supplier to enable a user to modify or correct his own copy of software without requiring a complete replacement  

Pause

- Inserted in stored number dialing sequence to allow time for switching to take place especially between the outside line access code and the number required when diffusing through a PABX  

PBGA

"Plastic Ball Grid Array"  

PBX

"Private Branch eXchange"

- Often used interchangeably with PABX

ddi, station protector

PC

"Personal Computer"

- Is a microcomputer designed for individual use usually as a business machine rather than as a home computer

pcb, pcb layout, pcb manufacturers, PCBWeb, pci, pcm, pcmcia, pcn, pcode, pcs, pcx

PCB

"Printed Circuit Board"

pcb layout, pcb manufacturers, PCBWeb

PCB Layout

- mem 2 4/2.5  

PCBWeb

- A free CAD application for designing and manufacturing electronics hardware  

PCI

"Peripheral Component Interconnect"  

PCM

"Pulse Code Modulalion"

pcmcia

PCMCIA

"Personal Computer Memory Card International Association"

axis

PCN

"Personal Communications Network"  

Pcode

- Is used by some Pascal compilers  

PCS

"Personal Communications Service"

computer security, dos, expansion card, floppy disk drive

PCX

"Pre-Connection Inspection"  

PDA

"Personal Digital Assistant"

- A small hand held terminal which recognise handwriting rather than demanding that the user can type

 

PDF

"Pulse Density Function"  

PDH

"Plesiosynchronous Digital Hierarchy"  

PDM

"Pulse Duration Modulation"  

PDN

"Public Data Network"  

PDU

"Protocol Data Unit"  

PE

"Protective Earth"

peak detector, peak inverse voltage, peak value, pedestal, pel, Pergonicals, perigee, periodic, peripheral device, petabit

Peak Detector

- The same as a rectifier with a capacitor input filter. Ideally, the capacitor charges to the peak of the input voltage. This peak voltage is then used for the output voltage of the peak detector, which is why the circuit is called a peak detector.  

Peak Inverse Voltage

- The maximum reverse voltage across a diode in a rectifier circuit  

Peak Value

- The largest instantaneous value of a time varying voltage

initial slope of sine wave

Pedestal

- The box often used by the phone company as the junction box for a number of local telephones  

PEL

"Picture ELement"  

Pergonicals

- Is a form of generated electromagnetism during two particles moving rapidly  

Perigee

- Lowest point (minimum altitude) of a geocentric orbit  

Periodic

- An adjective that describes a waveform that repeats the same basic shape for cycle after cycle

AM

Peripheral Device

- Is the term used to describe an input output or backing storage device which can be connected to the central processing unit

buffering, channel, multi programming

Petabit

- 1,000 terabits/sec  

pF

- A capacitance UOM equal to one trillionth of a farad

pfd, pfm

PFD

"Power Flux Density"

footpath

PFM

"Pulse Frequency Modulation"  

PG

"Polyimide Glass"  

Phase Current

- The current measured across any one winding from a three phase delta configuration  

Phase Shift

- The difference in phase angle between phasor voltages at points A and B

bpsk, compensating capacitor, dopsk, dpsk, dqpsk, qdpsk, reference voltage, resonant frequency

Phase Splitter

- A circuit that produces two voltages of the same amplitude but opposite phase. It is useful for driving class B push-pull amplifiers.  

Phase Voltage

- The voltage measured between any one conductor and the general mass of earth from a three phase star configuration  

Phoneme

- Is a single sound unit in speech  

Photodiode

- A reverse-biased diode that is sensitive to incoming light. The stronger the light, the larger the reverse minority-carrier current.  

PID

"Personal Identification Device"

- Is a device that is inserted into a terminal to establish the holder as an authorised user of the system. Sometimes used in conjunction with a PIN.

 

Piezoelectric Effect

- The effect of a voltage between opposite sides of a piezoelectric crystal as a result of pressure or twisting  

PIN

"Personal Identification Number"

pin and socket connectors, pinchoff voltage, ping

Pin and Socket Connectors

- Pin interface to a mating socket for the electrical connection of assemblies or modules  

Pinchoff Voltage

- The border between the ohmic region and the current-source region of a depletion-mode device when the gate voltage is zero  

PING

"Packet Inter-Net Groper"

- Ping is a utility used for network operating systems

 

PIO

"Programmable Input Output"  

Pipelining

- Is the concurrent decoding of two or more machine instructions  

Pixel

- Is a contraction of picture element. As used in graphics it is the smallest element of a display  

PJ

"Petroleum Jelly"  

PK

"Polyimide Kevlar"

pks

PKS

"Physically Knowledgeable Synthesis"  

PL

"Physical Layer"

pl1, pla, PLC, plcc, pll, plotter, plug and chugger, pluge

PL1

"Programming language 1"

- Is used for both scientific and business computing

 

PLA

"Programmable Logic Array"  

PLC

"Programmable Logic Controller"

plcc

PLCC

"Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier"  

PLL

"Phase Locked Loop"  

Plotter

- Is an output device which draws lines on paper

digital plotter, electronic workbench, incremental plotter

Plug and Chugger

- Someone who always reaches for a calculator and a book of formulas. One who substitutes values into one formula after another, hoping to get the right answer. One who is seldom sure of the answer because he or she hasn't thought the problem through.  

PLGUE

"Picture Line Up Generating Equipment"  

PM

"Phase Modulation"

PMPO, pmr

PMPO

"Pick Music Power Output"  

PMR

"Private Mobile Radio"

"Personal Mobile Radio"
 

PNP Transistor

- A semiconductor sandwich. It contains an n region between two p regions  

POCSAG

"Post Office Code Standardisation Advisory Group"  

POF

"Plastic Optical Fibre"  

Polar Mount

- Is a movable mount for satellite dishes that allows the dish to be pointed at many geostationary satellites by slewing around one axis  

Polarisation

- The property by which an electromagnetic wave exhibits a direction (or rotation sense) of vibration giving the opportunity for frequency reuse by orthogonal polarisations

polarisation rotor/rotator

Polarisation Rotor/Rotator

- A device that permits selection of one of two orthogonal polarisation or of any polarisation angle. Not a polariser.  

Polariser

- A birefringent component in waveguide or antenna system which converts between linear (plane) and circular polarisation. Not a polarisation rotor.

head unit, magnetic polariser, mechanical polariser, ratio, skew

Polarity

- The term used to describe positively and negatively charged particles or bodies eg. one terminal of a battery has a positive charge

Another definition of Polarity:
- The + and - of electrical current flow. When testing, the red probe of the VOM goes to the + and the black goes to the - or ground

altai tie clip microphone, batteries, Zero Crossing

Polarized Parts

- Devices that must be mounted in a predetermined direction or orientation  

Polling

- Is the testing of a terminal in a multi-access system to establish whether it is holding data for transmission to the computer. In systems which accept data from remote data storage devices polling includes the process of collecting this data.  

Polygraph

- Popularly referred to as a lie detector test, is a device or procedure that measures and records several physiological indicators such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions.  

Polyimide

- A stable resin film used for the base material of flexible substrate circuits

polyimide glass, polyimide quartz

Polyimide Glass

- Polyimide resin and glass fiber substrate material  

Polyimide Quartz

- Polyirnide resin and quartz fiber substrate material  

Polymer Coating

- Material used for solder masking on substrates  

Poodle

- A small, fluffy, dog  

Pop2

- Is used for list processing  

Port

- Term referring to the system connection point for an exchange line or extension

portability

Portability

- Is the ease with which a piece of software can be run on a variety of machines or under the control of a variety of operating systems

intermediate code

POS Terminal

"Point Of Sale" Terminal

- Is an input device used to record at the point of sate the details relating to the sale of goods for display to the customer and for subsequent transmission direct to the computer system for detailed stock control

 

Positive Clamper

- A circuit that produces a positive do shift of a signal by moving all the input signal upward until the negative peaks arc at zero and the positive peaks are at 2Vp  

Positive Feedback

- Feedback where the returning signal aids or increases the effect of the input voltage

latch, multivibrator

Positive Limiter

- A circuit that clips off the positive parts of the input signal  

POT

"Plain Old Telephone"

potentiometers, pots

Potentiometers

- Variable or adjustable resistor  

POTS

"Plain Old Telephone System"  

Power Bandwith

- The highest frequency that an op amp can handle without distorting the output signal. The power bandwidth is inversely proportional to the peak value  

Power Dissipation

- The product of voltage and current in a resistor or other non-reactive device. Rate at which heat is produced within a device.

foldback current limiting, switching regulator

Power Fail Telephone

- A telephone which will automatically be connected to a PSTN line when a PABX becomes ino rated due a power failure  

Power Gain

- The ratio of output power to input power  

Power Transistor

- A transistor that can dissipate more than 0.5 W. Power transistors are physically larger than small-signal transistors.  

PPL

"Phonographic Performance Ltd."  

PPM

"Pulse Position Modulation"  

PPRK

"Palm Pilot Robot Kit"  

PPV

"Pay Per View"

- A pay TV system that allows an individual viewer to purchase access to special events

 

PRA

"Primary Rate Access"  

PRBS

"Pseudorandom Binary Sequence"  

Pre Emphasis

- A method of improving SNR in a FM system by increasing deviation at high (relative to low) baseband frequencies according to a defined (I3G or CCIR) function.  

Preblanked Units

- Die cut or machined substrates  

Predicted Voltage Gain

- The voltage gain you calculate from the circuit values on a schematic diagram  

Preformed Leads

- Leads prepared for direct assembly processing  

PRF

"Pulse Repetition Frequency"  

PRI

"Primary Rate Interface"

prime focus, print hammer, printer, printer quality, printout, privacy, private mobile radio

Prime Focus

- The focal point of a paraboloid reflector (or part of a paraboloid). A feed system placed at that point.  

Print Hammer

- Is the component causing the contact between the character ribbon and paper in an impact printer  

Printer

- Is an output device producing characters or graphic symbols on paper. There are many methods of printing and of organising the operation of a printer and the following terms may be applied to any specific printer as appropriate.

printer quality

Printer Quality

- Is the standard of word processing output  

Printout

- Is printed output from the computer  

Privacy

- Is the recognition of the private nature of certain data. In consideration of privacy safeguards are usually built into systems which hold confidential data to prevent unauthorised access.

passport photos, surveillance

Private Mobile Radio

- Means of communication used by most mini cab firms and some other businesses  

Process

- A step-by-step routine followed to solve a problem. It is like a map that gets you from the given data to the final solution

process friendly

Process Friendly

- Compatible materials in the assembly processing of surface-mounted devices to a circuit substrate  

Profiling

- Temperature adjustment for the re-flow processing of solder paste for electrical and mechanical interconnection of SMT devices to the substrate

punch press

Program

- Is a complete set of program statements structured in such a way as to specify an algorithm

program counter, program execution, program generator, program relocation, program statement, programmer, programming code, programming languages

Program Counter

- Is the register that contains the address of the next machine code instruction to the expected. Also referred to as Instruction Address Register (IAR).  

Program Execution

- Is the carrying out of instructions specified by a computer program

execution error

Program Generator

- Is a program that assists users to write their own programs by expanding simple statements into program code  

Program Relocation

- Is the moving of a program stored in one area of main store (by the OS) to another area of main store  

Program Statement

- Is usually a source language instruction which generates several machine code instructions when translated  

Programmer

- Is the person responsible for writing computer programs

applications programmer, c, reserved word, SDK, source program, sprite, systems programmer

Programming Code

- A set of commands created in the process if writing of a computer program i.e. source code

reverse engineered code

Programming Languages

- These are artificial languages constructed in such away that people and programmable machines can communicate with each other in a precise and intelligible way  

PROLOG

"PROgramming in LOGic"

- Is a programming language based on mathematical logic with applications in information retrieval

 

PROM

"Programmable Read Only Memory"  

Propagation Delay

- The specified amount of time for a signal to pass through a previously closed signal path. The delay must be considered, for example, when the signal is used to synchronize other signals, or is being used in a Clock / Data configuration. This is due to both the electrical length of the signal path, and any active components in the signal path.  

Proportional Pinch Of Voltage

- The border between the ohmic region and the current-source region for any gate voltage  

Proportional Pinch Off Voltage

- The border between the ohmic region and the current-source region for any gate voltage  

Prototype

- A basic circuit that a designer can modify to get more advanced circuits

Another definition of Prototype:

- Limited quantity assembly processing of a product

micro microphones

PRP Logic

- Surround sound type effect developed by Dolby Laboratories to simulate cinema/ theatre sound in the home; usually five speakers.  

PRS

"Performing Right Society"  

PSD

"Power Spectral Density"

psdn

PSDN

"Packet Switched Data Network"

 

PSM

"Phase Shift Masking"  

PSN

"Public Switched Network"  

PSSS

"Packet Switched System/Service"  

PSTN

"Public Switched Telephone Network"

"Packet Switched Telephone Network"

call waiting, power fail telephone, ren

Pseudorandom Number Generator

- Is a piece of software that generates sequences of `pseudorandom` numbers that obey all the above rules but can be repeated by starting the sequence at the same point  

PT

"Packet Terminal"

pth, ptm, pto, ptt

PTH

- Pin through hole lead device or component  

PTM

"Pulse Time Modulation"  

PTO

"Public Telecommunications Operator"

- A company offering telephone/data services

 

PTT

"Posts Telegraphs and Telecommunications"

"Push To Talk"
 

PU

"Polyurethane"

pulldown menu, pullup resistor, pulse dialing, pulse dialling, punch and retain, punch press, punched paper tape, push pull connection

Pulldown Menu

- Is one available to the user at any time which when requested appears on the screen typically obscuring part of the work in hand  

Pullup Resistor

- A resistor that the user has to add to an IC device to make it work properly. One end of the pullup resistor is connected to the device, and the other end is connected to the positive supply voltage.  

Pulse Dialing

- The method of dialing by which electrical pulses tons and offs) are "counted" by the phone company`s switching computer  

pulse Dialling

- A system now obsolescent of signaling to the exchange the required number by transmitting a sequence of pulses. Also known as loop disconnect (LD) dialling.

tone switching

Punch and Retain

- Individual substrate units die punched from and returned to a panel for assembly processing  

Punch Press

- Machine for punch press processing or profiling of materials  

Punched Paper Tape

- Is a continuous strip of paper used to represent data by the patterns of the holes punched in a recognised code in the strip of paper  

Push Pull Connection

- Use of two transistors in a connection that makes one of them conduct for half a cycle while the other is turned off. In this way, one of the transistors amplifies the first half-cycle, and the other amplifies the second hall-cycle.  

PWM

"Pulse Width Modulation"  

 

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