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[A] Starting with the first letter of the alphabet, we show a list of electronic acronyms that start with letter a. This collection (set of acronyms, definitions and electronic terms) contains over 100 words with details for each. You may browse any of these words to find out more. Bolded words may contain larger description or some kind of article related to the acronym/definition. Some of these acronyms are: ADSR, ATAPI, ATM, ACL, ADC, ASCII, AXIS and other similar keywords.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [A]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
AAL"ATM Adaptation Layer"

ATM can support speeds ATM operates at the data link layer over either fiber or twisted-pair cable.
Abbreviated Dialing- is the use of a very short digit sequence to reach specific telephone numbers, such as those of public services. The purpose of such numbers is to be universal, short, and easy to remember. Typically they are two or three digits.
ABM"Adaptive Bandwidth Management"
ABSOC - advanced Broadcasting Systems of Canada.
Absolute Value- the value of an expression without regard for its sign. Sometimes called the magnitude. Given +5 and -5, the absolute value is S.
AC or Alternating current (go back and add again)alternating current, such as the power from a household electrical outlet. The value is constantly changing in a sine wave.AC Current Gain, AC Cutoff, AC Equivalent Circuit, AC Ground, AC Load Line, AC Resistance, AC Saturation, Acceptor, Access Box, Access Time, Accumulator, ACD`s, ACK, ACL, ACT, Active Current Gain, Active Filter, Active Loading, Active Region, Active-Load Resistor, Activity Report, Actuator
AC Current Gain- with a transistor, the ratio of ac collector current to ac base current.
AC Cutoff- the lower end of the ac load line. At this point, the transistor goes into cutoff and clips the ac signal.
AC Equivalent Circuit - all that remains when you reduce the dc sources to zero and short all capacitors.
AC Ground - a node that is bypassed to ground through a capacitor. Such a node will show no ac voltage when it is probed by an oscilloscope, but it will indicate a dc voltage when it is measured with a voltmeter.
AC Load Line- the locus of instantaneous operating points when an ac signal is driving the transistor. This load line is different from the do load line whenever the ac load resistance is different from the do load resistance.Optimum Q Point
AC Resistance- the resistance of a device to a small ac signal. The ratio of a voltage change to a current change. The key idea here is changes about an operating point.Predicted Voltage Gain, Swamped Amplifier
AC Saturation- the upper end of the ac load line. At this point, the transistor goes into saturation and clips the ac signal.
Acceptor - a trivalent atom, one that has three valence electrons. Each trivalent atom produces one hole in a silicon crystal. Doping
Access Box- also called the" service box" and sometimes "house protector." This is where the phone company`s lines enter the home.
Access Time- s the time interval between the instant at which data is called from store and the
instant at which the data can be used.

Another definition of access time:

- The time it takes for a device to access data. The access time quoted in milliseconds (ms) for hard disks and nanoseconds (ns) for memory is usually an average as it can vary greatly. Together with the transfer rate it is used to gauge the performance of hard disks and other devices. The Iower the number the better the performance.
Fixed Head Disk Unit
Accumulator- is a special storage register associated with the arithmetic logic unit used for
holding the results of a computation or data transfer.
ACD's"Automatic Call Distributors"

- A variant of PABXs which automatically present incoming calls in their arrival sequence to the first available answering position in an organisation.
ACLasynchronous connectionless,
ref bluetooth
ACTAdvanced Crystal Technology
Active Current Gain- the current gain in the active region of a transistor. That is what you usually find on a data sheet and what most people mean when they talk about current gain. (See saturated current gain.)
Active Filter- in the good old days, filters were made out of passive components like inductors and capacitors. Some filters are still made this way. The problem is that at low frequencies, inductors become very large in passive filter designs. Op amps give another way to build filters and eliminate the problem of bulky inductors at low frequencies. Any filter using an op amp is called an active filter.
Active Loading- this refers to using a bipolar or MOS transistor as a resistor. It`s done to save space or to get resistances that tie difficult with passive resistors.
Active Region- sometimes called the linear region. It refers to that part of the collector curves that is approximately horizontal. A transistor operates in the active region when it is used as an amplifier. In the active region, the emitter diode is forward-biased, the collector diode is reverse-biased, the collector current almost equals the emitter current, and the base current is much smaller than either the emitter or collector current. Active Current Gain, Switching Regulator
Active-Load Resistor- a FET with its gate connected to the drain. The resulting two-terminal device is equivalent to a resistor.
Activity Report - FAX term. A printout of a list of incoming and outgoing messages with length and time of transmission. May be produced automatically or on demand.
ActuatorSometimes referred to as a jack. Power controlled motor that moves the dish eastward or westward. Controlled by the indoor unit.
ADA- is designed for complex online realtime monitoring (e.g. in military applications).Adapter
Adapter - a device to change the incoming 120 V ac into a needed value of dc.
ADC- analogue to digital conversion. Process of sampling and coding an analogue quantity or signal to produce a digital representation.
Adder- is a device that adds digital signals. (See Full adder 12.20 Half adder 12.2l.)
Address- is the identification of a store location.

Absolute address
is the address of a store location as determined by the hardware.

Relative address
is the address of a store location relative to some `base address`. Subscripted variables may be stored using relative addressing techniques.
address calculation, address field, addressable cursor
Address Calculation- is the process of determining which store location is to be accessed by use of the
address field in a machine code instruction. There are a number of alternative
address field
Address Field- the part that specifies the address where the data can he found. Also called the
operandfield or simply the operand.
address calculation, immediate addressing
Addressable Cursor
- is one where the program has some control over its position usually by
specifying the coordinates of the point where it is to appear.
Adhesive- liquid or film compound for attaching materials to one anotheresd packaging, fluid dispensing
ADM"Adaptive Delta Modulation"
ADPCM"Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation"
"Assymmetrical Digital Subscriber`s Line"atu, vadsl, vdt
ADSR- Is an abbreviation for Attack, Decay, Sustain, and Release. These are the four parameters found on a basic synthesizer envelope generator.
AF or Audio FrequencyA range of frequencies discernible by the human ear approximately
20 Hz to 15 kHz.
afe, aftn

"Analogue Front End"
AFTN"Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network"

"Automatic Gain Control"
AGP"Advanced Graphics Port"
- Up to one on the motherboard, this slot is only used for AGP video cards.
AHA"Advanced Hardware Architecture"
Air Gap
clearance between conductive circuit traces on a substrate layer

- A small engine fired when the spacecraft reaches its apogee to propel the satellite into a circular orbit.
ALGOL 681.2 ALGOL68 (ALGOrithmic Language 1968)
is a version of the earlier language ALGOL60 substantially revised to include
structured programming features. Both these languages are designed to aid the
coding of algorithms.
- is a finite set of rules giving a sequence of operations for solving a specific type
of problem.
Altai Tie Clip Microphone
AUL or Arithmetic Logic Unit- is the part of the central processing unit where arithmetic/logic operations are performed. Also called the arithmetic unit.alumina substrate
Alumina Substrate- ceramic base material used for additive conductive circuit traces.
AM or Amplitude Modulation A change in the level of a signal. For example, if a Voltage Controlled Amplifier (VCA) were being modulated by a Low Frequency Oscillator (LFO), the result would be a periodic increase and decrease in the audio level of the signal. In musical terms this would be referred to as Tremolo. The abbreviation of Amplitude Modulation is AM.Ambient Temperature, ami, Amper (Ampere), amplifier, amplitude, amvsb
Ambient Temperature- The temperature of the surrounding medium, usually used to refer to the temperature of the air in which a structure is situated or a device operates.
AMI"Alternate Mark Inversion"
Amper (Ampere)The basic unit of current flow. An Ampere of current flow represents electron movement at a rate of one coulomb per second: that amount of current through one ohm of resistance with one volt applied.
Amplifier- a circuit that can increase the peak-to-peak voltage, current, or power of a signal.TO ADD
Amplitude- the size of a signal, usually it's peak value.AM, ask, pam, phase splitter qam, qask
AMVSB"Amplitude Modulation Vestigial Sideband"
Analog Computer- is a computer in which data is represented by a continuously variable physical
quantity such as voltage or angular position.


An analog computer represents data as physical quantities and operates on the data by manipulating the quantities. It is designed to process data in which the variable quantities vary continuously , it translates the relationships between the variables of a problem into analogous relationships between electrical quantities, such as current and voltage, and solves the original problem by solving the equivalent problem, or analog, that is set up in its electrical circuits. Because of this feature, analog computers were especially useful in the simulation and evaluation of dynamic situations, such as the flight of a space capsule or the changing weather patterns over a certain area. The key component of the analog computer is the operational amplifier, and the computer's capacity is determined by the number of amplifiers it contains (often over 100). Although analog computers are commonly found in such forms as speedometers and watt-hour meters, they largely have been made obsolete for general-purpose mathematical computations and data storage by digital computers.
Analog to Digital Converter- is a device for converting analog signals into digital ones for subsequent
computer processing~ sometimes called a digitiser. A digital to analog converter
operates in the reverse direction.
Analogy- a likeness in some ways between dissimilar things that are otherwise unlike. The analogy between bipolar transistors and JFETs is an example. Because the devices are similar, many of the equations for them are identical except for a change of subscripts.
Announce Only - TAM mode for use on information lines where no incoming message is to be recorded.
Annular Ring- width of conductive material around a via or hole provided in the substrate surface or layer.
ANSI"American National Standards Institute "EDI
AntennaA device used to transmit or receive signals. American term for aerial; usually associated with the term `dish`.
APD"Avalanche Photodiode"
Aperture- Total reflective area of dish.aperture blockage
Aperture Blockage- Often caused by the LNB or LNB support rods casting a shadow across the reflective area of the dish.
Apex- Highest point. Usually referred in motorised dish setup terms as the highest point of the geostationary are.offset fed antenna
APLis a scientific programming language using a specially designed character set
with applications in advanced mathematical work.
Apogee- highest point (maximum altitude) of a geocentric orbit. (also see perigee).AKM
APOS- Something to do with IGBT's.
Applications- An application or package is one or more programs used for a particular task. For example: word processing invoicing or spreadsheeting. Applications are bought shrink wrapped (wrapped in cellophane for general use) or custom built for specific uses. applications programmer
Applications Programmer- is a programmer who writes programs for specific user applications.
Approximation- a way to retain your sanity with semiconductor devices. Exact answers are tedious and time-consuming and almost never justified in the real world of electronics. On the other hand, approximations give us quick answers, usually adequate for the job at hand.ideal diode, ideal transistor, second approximation, third approximation
ARCThe imaginary curve created by a string of satellites in geostationary orbit.dc return, positive clamper
ARIB"Association of Radio Industries and Businesses"

- Japanese radio standards body. ARIB and the European UMTS specifications were developed to be interoperable at an early stage.
ARINC "Aeronautical Radio Incorporated"
ARM"Advanced Research Machines"
ARP"Address Resolution Protocol".

- ARP is the method for finding a host's hardware address when only its network layer address is known.
ARPA"Advanced Research Projects Agency"
ARQ"Automatic Repeat Request"


"automatic retransmission query"
ART"Analogue Real Time"
ASCII"American Standard Code for Information Interchange"
ASIC"Application Specific Integrated Circuits"
ASID"Application Specific Integrated Device"
ASK"Amplitude Shift Keying"component/equipment storage, fluid dispensing, fraud, polygraph, surveillance
Aspect RatioThe ratio of screen width to screen height. Conventional TV is 4:3 and HDTV is 16:9.
ASR"Automatic Send/Receive"
Assembler- is a program usually provided by the computer manufacturer to translate a
program written in assembly language into machine code. In general each
assembly language instruction is changed into one machine code instruction.
Also called an assembly) program.
assembly language, cross assembler, symbol table
Assembly- is the process of converting a program written in assembly language into
machine code.
assembly language, assembly time
Assembly Language- is a language in which the form of instruction is closely related to the machine code used on the machine but the instructions are expressed in symbolic form often using mnemonics (e.g. Z80 assembler 6502 assembler).assembler, assembly, symbolic addressing
Assembly Time- is used to describe either the period during which assembly takes place or the
length of this time.
Associative Storage- is storage that is identified by means of content rather than by an address. Also
called content addressable storage.
ATAPI"Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface"

- An extension of ATA and a specification for devices that use the IDE interface, such as CD-ROM drives and tape backups.
ATDM "Asynchronous Time Division Multiplex(er)"
ATE"Automatic Test Equipment"batteries history
ATM"Asynchronous Transfer Mode"

- ATM is a high speed form of digital transmission applications include sending voice and data down the same cable enabling multimedia videoconferencing etc.
ATM is used widely and every day more and more as the number of Internet users grows ATM is more found to be usable and worth installing.
aal, b isdn
ATSC"Advanced Television Standards Committee"
Attenuation- Attenuation is a general term that refers to any reduction in the strength of a signal. Attenuation occurs with any type of signal, whether digital or analog. Sometimes called loss, attenuation is a natural consequence of signal transmission over long distances.

"ADSL Transceiver Unit Broadband"
Audio Amplifier- any amplifier designed for the audio range of frequencies, 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
Audio Sub Carrier- An audio signal transmitted within the bandwidth of a wider transponder signal.
Audit Trail

- is a record of the file updating that takes place during a Specific transaction. It enables a trace to be kept of all operations on files.
Author Language
- is a formal language used in the context of CAL with particular properties
appropriate to the development of teaching material.
Autoresponder- An autoresponder is a program (application) that automatically responds to an email message sent to a predefined address on the server. This is useful for automatically sending out information via email based on a user's emailed request. Autoresponder usually comes on the hosting server, but there are more sophisticated autoresponders that could be obtained for a fee (commercial autoresponders).
Avalanche Effect

- a phenomenon that occurs for large reverse voltages across apn junction. The free electrons are accelerated to such high speeds that they can dislodge valence electrons. When this happens, the valence electrons become free electrons that dislodge other valence electrons.
AWD"Audible Warning Device"
AWG"Arbitrary Waveform Generator


"American Wire Gauge"
AxisType of spacecraft stabilisation in which the body maintains a flexed attitude relative to the orbital track and the earths surface. The reference axes are roll pitch and yaw by nautical analogy.
- Angle between antenna beam and meridian plane (measured in horizontal plane).


[B] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter b that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [B]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
B ISDNThe B-ISDN vision has been overtaken by the disruptive technology of the Internet. The ATM technology survives as a low-level layer in most DSL technologies.
BAA "British Astronomical Association"
BABTBritish Approvals Board for Telecommunications
Back Off
- The process of reducing the input power level of a travelling wave tube to obtain more linear operation.
Background Job
- is a job having a low priority within a multiprogramming system.
Backing Store- is a means of storing large amounts of data outside the immediate access store.
Also known as secondary storage.
directory, dump, interblock gap, loader, mainframe, mass storage device, micro computer, overlay, paging, scratch file.
Backwards Compatible - Compatibility of hardware or software to older versions of the product or standard. The amount of data that can be sent along a communications channel every second. In common usage it is often confused with bits per second. These days modem speeds are normally measured in bits per second.
Baising- adding external voltage.
Band Width
- The range of frequencies occupied by a signal or passed by a channel.
Bandsaircraft: 109-136 mHz.
marine: 156-162 mHz.
surveillance, triple band lnb
Bandwidth- A range of frequencies that a circuit will pass.


- the difference between the two dominant critical frequencies of an amplifier. If the amplifier has no lower critical frequency, the bandwidth equals the upper critical frequency.


- The amount of data that can travel through a channel in a given period of time. Bandwidth is usually measured in cycles per second (hertz) or in bits per second (BPS). The larger the bandwidth, the more information the network can handle.
Bank Switching

- is a technique for overcoming the limitations of computers that can only address
a limited amount of immediate access storage. Several `banks` of storage are
provided each one occupying the same place in the computer`s memory map.
Only one bank may be active at any one time and the desired one is selected by
software. This technique is frequently used to provide a range of ROMbased
software within a microcoinputer such as a wordprocessor a spreadsheet and
a database any one of which may be used at a time. Software provided in this
way is sometimes known as sideways ROM.
Bar Code Reader- is an input device used to scan a pattern of lines using optical sensing
techniques. The line pattern is coded information about the item to which it
relates (e.g. the price and description of an item of merchandise).
Barrel Printer- is a line printer where the complete character set is provided at each printing
position embossed on the surface of a horizontal barrel or cylinder.
Barrier Potential
- the voltage across the depletion layer. This voltage is built into the pit junction because it is the difference of potential between the ions on both sides of the junction. It equals approximately 0.7 V for a silicon diode.knee voltage, second approximation
Base- the part of the telephone that is more or less stationary and connected to the main telephone lines. (See also handset.)base band, base bias
Base Band- The band of frequencies containing the information prior to radiation (and subsequent to demodulation).
Base Bias

- the worst way to bias a transistor for use in the active region. This type of bias sets up a fixed value of base current.
Batch Processing
- is a technique in which computer processing does not begin until all the input (data and/or programs) has been collected together (i.e. batched).transaction file
Batteries AlkalineType
alkaline (includes Manganese button cells). Manganese Dioxide

Common name


Volts per cell

Good at low temp. Discharge voltage foils with usage. Good service for heavy duty high current usage. Lasts 57 times longer than carbon zinc.

High current drain radios shavers electronic photoflash movie and VCR cameras toys tape players clocks R/C models.
Batteries Button Type

Common name
lithium manganese


Volts per cell

Good shelf life. Contains high energy density. Wide application temp. range (10F to 140F) suitable for heavy drain

Watches calculotors cameras measuring instruments electronic watches with backlight/alarm

Another definition of batteries button:

Common name
silver oxide


Volts per cell

Flat discharge. Fair low temp. performance. Similar to Mercuric Oxide except provides higher volt /service capacity to volume ratio.

Hearing aids watches calculators instruments pagers reference voltage source.
Batteries Classificationalkaline
America Duracell Europe Japan
D MN1300 LR20 AM1
C MN1400 LR14 AM2
AA MN1500 LR6 AM3
9V MN1604 6LR61 6AM6
AAA MN2400 LR03 AM4
N MN9100 LR1 AM5

heavy duty
America Europe Japan
D LR20 UM3
C LR14 UM2
9V 6LR61 6UM6

voltage america duracell europe
1.25 D NC13 RX20
1.25 C NC14 RX14
1.25 AA NC15 RX6
7.2 9V NC1604 RX22
1.25 AAA NC24 RX3
1.25 N NC91 RX1

button alkaline
voltage duracell depth dia
mm mm
lr44 5.36 11.56
lr43 4.19 11.56
lr54 3 11.56

button lithium
voltage duracell depth dia
mm mm
3 dl2032 3.2 20
dl2025 2.5 20
dl2016 1.6 20
Batteries Extra LifeType
extra life

Common name
zinc chloride


Volts per cell

output at moderate/light use is 50% greater than carbon zinc. Good low temp. performance.

Motor driven toys cassette players/recorders radios clocks calculators.
Batteries HistoryIn 1789 Alessandro Volta put a zinc rod and a copper rod together in some acid. As the acid ate away (or reacted with) the zinc rod (the negative electrode) the copper rod (the positive electrode) captured the energy released from the reaction. That energy created a voltage between the rods. Voltage had been created in the wet battery! The first dry cell battery (like the ones we use now] wasn't developed until 1888 almost a hundred years later but it was based on the principles Volta had discovered. Todays general purpose batteries are more sophisticated. Even though they are dry cells they share many similarities with Volta's first battery. The outside of the battery is a can made of zinc. This is the negative electrode. The positive electrode is the carbon rod in the middle of the con. Between the electrodes taking the place of acid in Volta's battery are an electrolyte and something called a cathode mix. The battery produces electricity when the zinc can reacts with the electrolyte and and the electrolyte reacts with the cathode mix. As the three substances are used up the batteries voltage drops until it can't power anything known as a dead battery.
Batteries RechargeableType

Common name
nickel cadmium


Volts per cell

maintenance free hermetically sealed flat discharge valtage curve with usage Good high/low temp. performance. Resistant to shock and vibratian. Can recharge. High effective capacitance.

Portable power tools opplionces toothbrushes tape recorders radios and colculotors. Photoflash units portoble communication equip. R/C toys
Battery- an electrochemical device that generates electricity through a chemical reaction. For telephones, batteries are used to back up internal memory if the main power is interrupted and to power cordless phones.battery backup, battery n, battery pack, battery snap
Battery Backup Prevents loss of memory contents in the event of power failure.
Battery N1.5V

USA Duracell Europe Japan
N MN9100 LR1 AM5

heavy duty
USA Europe Japan

USA Duracell Europe
N NC91 RX1
Battery Pack- more than one battery cell hooked together inside a single package.
Battery Snap- It is the snap that connects a battery to the circuit.
Baud- Unit of data transmission rate based on number of teletype characters per second.
Baud Rate- The speed at which digital information is passed through a serial interface expressed in bits-per-second. MIDI data is transmitted at 31.25 KBaud or 31,250 bits per second.
BCCBlock Check Character
BCD"Binary Coded Decimal"
BCH Code"Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem Code"
Beam Width- The acceptance angle of an antenna usually measured between halfpower (3dB) points.
Benchmark- is a standard program used to compare the performance of different types of
- Bit Error Rate. Accuracy of digital demodulation or decoding. Analogous to SNR but refers to digital transmission.BERT
BERT"Bit Error Rate Tester"

"Broadband Fixed Wireless Access"
BGA"Ball Grid Array"
Bi-Directional Printer
- is one where the righttoleft return movement of the print head is also used to
print a second line thus increasing printing speed.
BiFet Op Amp- an IC op amp that combines FETs and bipolar transistors, usually with FET source followers at the front end of the device, followed by bipolar stages of gain.
BIG"Broadband Integrated Gateway"batteries, c guard, cctv lenses E-OK, surveillance
Binary Search- is a technique for locating a record in an ordered list by repeatedly comparing the key with the miditem in the list and discarding that half of the list which cannot contain the required record.
Binary Tree- is one where any node may have no more than two branches.

"Basic Input Output System"

- Software routines that let your computer address other devices like the keyboard monitor and disk drives.
Bipolar Transistor- a transistor where both free electrons and holes are necessary for normal operation.
- Slang term for satellite.
BISDN"Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network"

"Built In Self Test"
Bistable- is a device that has two stable states which can be used to represent 0 and 1.
- A binary digit. Smallest possible unit of digital transmission.

Another definition of Bit:
Binary digit the basic binary unit for storing data. It can either be O or 1. A Kilobit (Kbit) is 210 (1024 bits); and a Megabit is 220 which is just over a million bits. These units are often used for data transmission. For data storage Megabytes are more generally used. A Megabyte (Mb) is 1024 kilobytes (Kb) and a Kb is 1024 bytes. A Gigabyte (Gb) is 1024Mb. A byte (binary digit eight) is composed of eight bits.bug (See crash)
bit rate
Bit Rate- Speed of digital transmission measured in bits per second or multiples (kilobits megabits per second).
Block- An 8 x 8 matrix of PIXELS (or 64 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients).block diagram, blocking factor
Block Diagram- is a diagram made up of squares or rectangles labelled to represent different
hardware or software components and lines showing their interconnections.
Blocking Factor- is the number of records in a block.
Bluetooth- cable replacement technology founded by Ericsson, IBM Intel, Nokia and Toshiba. it works using the unlicensed 2.4GHz short range radio frequency and is sill in development - products expected to emerge end of 2000.
BND- German equivalent of mi6

- bill of materials or list of parts for an assembly
Boot- Short for bootstrap.

Refers to the process when a computer loads its operating system into memory. Reboot means to restart your computer after a crash either with a warm reboot (where you press Ctrl Alt Del) or a cold reboot where you switch the computer off and back on again.
Bootstrap- is a short sequence of instructions used for loading a program to start up the
computer normally held in ROM and activated when the machine is switched

This process is sometimes referred to as booting.
Boresight- The centre of an antenna beam usually the direction of maximum gain.
- An acronym representing the eswntial features of a telephone exchange: Battery Over-voltage Ringing Supervision Coding Hybrid and Test.
BPSBits per second (b/s).bpsk
BRA Basic rate access (ISDN)
Breakdown Region- for a diode or transistor, it is the region where either avalanche or the zener effect occurs. With the exception of the zener diode, operation in the breakdown region is to be avoided under all circumstances because it usually destroys the device.
Breakdown Voltage- the maximum reverse voltage a diode can withstand before avalanche or the zener effect occurs.
Breakover- when a transistor breaks down, the voltage across it remains high. But with a thyristor, breakdown turns into saturation. In other words, breakover refers to the way a thyristor breaks down and then immediately goes into saturation.

largest do output voltage with the smallest ripple.
Breakpoint- is a temporary halt inserted in a program in order for the program mer to inspect
the contents of registers storage locations etc. to aid debugging.
BRI"Basic Rate Interface" (ISDN)bridge networks, bridge rectifier, bridging, brisc
Bridge Networks- a set of diode devices interconnected for a specific electrical function.
Bridge Rectifier- the most common type of rectifier circuit. It has four diodes, two of which are conducting at the same time. For a WEN transformer, it produces the
largest dc output voltage with the smallest ripple.
Bridging- the connecting of two or more circuit points with solder alloy.
BRISC"Bipolar/BiCMOS Reduced Instruction Set Computer"
BRNN"Bi-Directional Recurrent Neural Networks"
Broker's CallFeature of a PABX allowing a user to make a call to an internal extension during an outside call and to switch between the two while maintaining privacy.
BS"British Standard"bsc, bsi, bsig, bsp
BSC"Binary Synchronous Communications"
BSI"British Standards Institute"bsig

"Blue-tooth Special Interest Group"
BSP"Board Support Package"
"British Telecom"
BTAM"Basic Telecommunications Access Method"
BTSC"Broadcast Television Systems Committee"
bubble store- is a form of memory in which data is stored by magnetising very small elements
called bubbles. Bubble memories can store enormous amounts of data in a very
small volume.
Buffer Amplifier- this is an amplifier that you use to isolate two other circuits when one is overloading the other. A buffer amplifier usually has a very high input impedance, a very low output impedance, and a voltage gain of 1. These qualities mean that the buffer amplifier will transmit the output of the first circuit to the second circuit without changing the signal.
Buffering- is the use of a store area (buffer) to temporarily hold data being transmitted
between a peripheral device and the central processor to compensate for
differences in their working speeds. Buffering can also be used between two peripheral devices.
Bug- is an error in a program or at fault in equipment.buggy
Buggy- is a motorised device on wheels which is connected to a computer and can be
made to move under the control of a program which accepts feedback from the
sensing mechanisms on the buggy such as photoelectric cells.
Bulk Resistance- the ohmic resistance of the semiconductor material.
Bursting- is to separate continuous stationery.
- is a common pathway shared by signals from several components of the
computer (e.g. all input/output devices would be connected to the I/0 bus).
Also called a highway.

Another definition of bus:
A "data highway" which transports data from the processor to whatever component it wants to talk to. There are many different kinds of bus including ISA EISA MCA and local bus (PCI and VLbus).
eisa, isa, mca, pci, s100 bus, samba, usb
Butt - A telephone with various connection adaptors for testing purposes.
Butterworth Filter- This is a filter designed to produce as flat a response as possible up to the cutoff frequency. In other words, the output voltage remains constant almost all the way to the cutoff frequency. Then it decreases at 20n dB per decade, where n is the number of poles in the filter.
Bypass Capacitor- a capacitor used to ground a node
Byte- A digital word usually consisting of eight bits. A byte is eight bits grouped and considered a unit. There are seldom used associated terms used in conjunction with byte. A nybble is half a byte, or four bits. As was determined in the '20s, half of a nybble, a quarter (of a byte) or 25 cents, is two bits. A word is two bytes, or sixteen bits; a large word is four bytes, or 32 bits.bit


[C] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter c that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [C]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
C or 1.5 C- is a high level language with low level features that enable the programmer to
avoid the use of assembly language.
C Band- Frequency range from 3700 to 4200 MHz (3.7 4.2 GHz).
C Pack- plastic integrated circuit package with "butt mounted" lead contacts on four sides
Cable- a combination of two or more insulated conductors in a single casing.

or An assembly of two or more conductors insulated from each other and enclosed in a protective sheath.
Cache- is a hardware or software component that stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache might be the result of an earlier computation or a copy of data stored elsewhere.cache memory
Cache Memory- is an extremely fast part of main store.


Temporary memory set aside to store the information that is accessed most frequently. The Pentium processor has 8Kb of inbuilt cache. This can be further speeded up by a secondary cache typically 256Kb. Part of your DRAM is often used to cache your hard disk.
CAD"Computer Aided Design"
Cadence- A ringing pattern.
CAE"Computer Aided Engineering"
CAI"Common Air Interface"


"Common Air Interface" (Also "Call Arrival Indication")
- is an instruction to transfer control to a subprogramcall arrival indication, call barring, call diversion, call forwarding, call intrusion, call management, call pickup, call screening, call splitting, call transfer, call waiting
Call Arrival Indication- ringing signal sent to the called terminal.
Call Barring
- Prevents outside call being made or linnets types of calls that may be made.
Call Diversion- PABX feature allows calls to be automatically rerouted from one exte~ to another immediately or if the call is not answered within a set number of rings. Also called `Follow me` or `Call forwarding`.
Call Forwarding


Call Diversion
- is a telephony feature of some telephone switching systems which redirects a telephone call to another destination.
Call Intrusion
- PABX feature allowing the user to break into another cafl. Cafl kn~ See Call management
Call Management
- PABX feature to allow all incoming and outgoing cafis to be logged for control or checking purposes or for traffic flow analysis.
Call Pickup- PABX feature allowing 2 user to answer a call ringing on another extension.
Call Screening
- TAM mode where incoming call can be heard over the loudspeaker and the user may decide whether to answer the call or not.
Call Splitting- Feature of a PABX allowing a user to make a call to an internal extension during an outside call and to switch between the two while maintaining privacy.

Same as Broker's call.
Call Transfer
- PABX term. The rerouting of a telephone call on an outside line to a different extension.
Call Waiting- is a telecommunication service offered by a telephone service provider to a subscriber by which the subscriber may suspend a telephone call already in progress to accept a second call. The subscriber may switch between calls, typically by using the hook flash signal.
Camp on Busy
- A signal that informs a busy telephone user that another call originator is waiting for a connection.
CAN"Controller Area Network"

- Carrierless Amplitude / Phase modulation capacitor, capacitor input filter, end cap termination
Capacitor- a passive electron storing two-terminal
device used in interfacing electronic circuit functions.
capacitor input filter
Capacitor Input Filter- nothing more than a capacitor across the load resistor. This type of passive filter is the most common.
CarrierThe radio frequency wave that is modulated by the baseband information signal.carrier contacts, carrier pallets, carrier to noise ratio
Carrier Contacts- contact leads for attaching leadless IC devices to a substrate
Carrier Pallets- a partitioned tray used to store or transport electrical devices
Carrier to Noise Ratio- The carrier to noise ratio (C/N ratio) is the ratio between the pure signal level and the accompanying noise level; the higher the ratio the better the clarity of the final demodulated signal.
Carry Flag- is a single bit that is set to 1 when a carry occurs during a binary addition; this may he tested by the programmer.
Cartridge- is a removable module containing software often permanently stored as an
integrated circuit.
Cascaded Stages- connecting two or more stages so that the output of one stage is the input to the next.
CASE"Computer Aided Software Engineering"case temperature
Case Temperature- this is the temperature of the transistor case or package. When you pick up a transistor, you are in contact with the case. If the case is warm, you are feeling the case temperature.
Cassegrain Antenna- A parabolic dish using a secondary hyperbolic subreflector. Achieves higher efficiency than primary type because angle of wavefront entry to feedhorn is less. Usually central focused.
Castilation- the amount of alloy that has been deposited on device leads or contacts after solder processing.
Catenary Wire- A support wire for overhead cables not used electrically.
CATG"Computer Aided Test Generator"
Cathode- An electron emitter. A cathode has a more negative voltage relative to some other place. Used in older Television sets. (Cathode Tube)batteries history, graphical display unit, Oxidation, Redox, VDU
CATV"Community Antenna Television"head end
CCD"Charge Coupled Device"
CCETT"Centre commun d'études de télévision et télécommunications"
CCI"Copper Clad Invar"

- metal core laminated substrate used as an alternative material for applications using plcc's.
CCIR"International Radio Consultative Committee"


Comité Consultatif International des Radiocommunicaltdion
CCIT"International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee"


"International Radio Consultative Committee"
CCITT"Comité Consultatif International Télégraphique et Téléphonique"
CCSS"Communications Channel Signalling System"
CCTV"Closed Circuit Television"
CCU"Central Control Unit
"Camera Control Unit"
CD"Carrier Detect" - is a control signal present inside an RS-232 serial communications cable that goes between a computer and another device, such as a modem.


"Compact Disc" - is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was originally developed to store and play only sound recordings but was later adapted for storage of data.
cd rom, cdc, cdi, cdit, cdm, cdma, cdma2000, cdr, CDSL, cdt.
CD ROM- Stands for "Compact Disc Read-Only Memory." A CD-ROM is a CD that can be read by a computer with an optical drive. The "ROM" part of the term means the data on the disc is "read-only," or cannot be altered or erased.
CDC"Computing Devices Canada"
CD-I"CD Interactive" - This is a CD ROM system developed by Philips (along with Sony and Panasonic). It was devised to work on TV sets. A CDi player also accepts ordinary audio CDs and connects to a hifi system. Additionally it plays Photo CDs a standard developed by Kodak that allows photographic images scanned from 35 mm negatives to be shown on a TV screen. A plugin adaptor will connect a CDi player to a PC so that CDi software is usable on the computer platform as well as on a TV.cdit
CDIT"Centre D`Interception Telephonique" - french security services eavesdropping service under a park in Paris.
CDM"Code Division Multiplex"cdma, cdma2000
CDMA"Code Division Multiple Access"
- A spread spectrum communication technique, the basis of most 3G systems.
CDMA2000- 3G air interface standard
a Qualcomm trade name
Comes in 1X (1.25MHz channel) and 3X (3 x 1.25MHz channel) types.
CDR"Common Data Rate"


"CD Recordable" (CDR).
- Currently most CDROM and CDi discs and players are read only devices so unlike video tapes they cannot be used to record video music or other data.
CDSL"Consumer Digital Subscriber Line"
- Basically customers would subscribe for CDSL to gain faster access to the Internet.
CDT"Cambridge Display Technology"
CEI"Commission Electrotechnique Internationale"
Cellular- a communications system which uses interlinked receivers/transmitters, each of which covers a particular area, or cell. Used for mobile and other portable telephone communications.dect, gsm, ioca
CELPC"Code Excited Linear Predictive Coding"
CEM"Contract Electronic Manufacturing"
CEN"Comite Europeen de Normalisation"cenelec, centrally focused antenna, centrex, centronics
CENELEC "Comit European en de Normalisation Electrotechnical"
Centrally Focused Antenna- Refers to a circular dish shape whereby the focal point is at the centre.
Centrex- PABX facilities provided by the local exchange.
Centronics- Parallel computer interface commonly used to connect to printer.
CEPT"conference of european posts and telecommunications"


"conference europeene des administrations de postes et telecommunications"

- a standard setting body for Europe
Ceramic Capacitors

- a monolithic layered dielectric and alloy film device
Cermet- material used in the manufacture of resistive devices.
CESG- communications electronics security group
cheltenham spin off.
CFSK "Coherent Frequency Shift Keying"
Chain Printer- is a line printer where the characters are carried on a continuous chain between
print hammers and paper.
Channel- is any physical path followed by data particularly between a central processing
unit and a peripheral device or by extension between the user's program and
a file on backing store.
channel resistance, dual channel operations
Channel Resistance- is about the JFET and about the pinch off voltage
Chip- is the popular iiaine for an integrated circuit.
Chip CreakThis is an electronics phenomenon where the IC/Pins expand
Chip Resistors- a resistive film element applied to a thin ceramic substrate with each element end attached to an alloy end cap terminator.
CHOTS"Corporate Headquarters Office Technology System"
Chrominance- Term used to describe the colour difference signals of TV picture for example BY RY and GY. Sometimes the abbreviation `chroma` is used.
CIE"Commission Internationale de L`Eclairage"
CIF"Common image format"
CIM"Computer Integrated Manufactunng"
Cinclant- Commander In Chief Atlantic
Circuit- A Complete Electrical Pathin circuit test short circuit output current, short circuit protection
CISC"Complex Instruction Set Computer"
CISDR"Common Image Structure Data Rate"
CISPR"Comité Intennationale de Perturbations Radiotechniques"
Clarke Belt- The circular orbit at 35800 km (22247 Mls) above the equator where the satellites appears stationary to earth receivers. Named after its discoverer Arthur C Clarke.
Class A Operation- This means the transistor is conducting throughout the ac cycle without going into saturation or cut off
Class B Operation- Biasing of a transistor in such a way that it conducts for only half of the ac cycle
CLI"Calling Line Identification."

- This delivers the number of the party calling before the call is collected.
Clock- Is the electronic unit that synchronises related pieces of equipment by
generating pulses at a constant rate.
clock rate, clock track
Clock Rate- Is the frequency at which the clock operates.
Clock Track- Is a series of optical or magnetic marks on the relevant input medium giving
location information which defines the read areas.
Close8 Close (a file)
- Is the correct method of giving up access to a file on backing store; this allows
operations hidden from a user such as clearing of buffers to be successfully
closed loop quantity, closed subroutine
Closed Subroutine- Is one where separate calls to the subroutine use the same piece of code.
CLUT"Colour Lookup Table"
CME"Covert Methods Of Entry"
CMOS"Complementary metal oxide semiconductor"

- Complementary means that it has NPN and PNP transistors. Digital circuits tend to use very little current, because the paths for current flow are effectively open circuits except during the transition between states.
cmos inverter
CMRR"Common Mode Rejection Ratio"
CNET- French National Centre for Scientific Research
CNR C/N"Carrier to Noise Ratio"
CO- US term for the local telephone exchange.
Co Located- Two or more satellites orbiting at the same geostationary location
COAST"Cache On A Stick"
COBOL"COmmon Business Oriented Language"

- Is used for business data processing
Code- Is a set of program instructionsbar code reader, code security, codec, codel, machine code instruction
Code Security- Electronic `handshake` between handM and baw unit of a cordless telephone
CODEL"Congressional Delegation"
Coding Sheet- Is a special form on whicti program instructions may be written
Coductivity Modulation- Of a semiconductor, the variation of the conductivity of a semiconductor through variation of the charge carrier density.
COFDM"Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division"
Collector- The largest part of a transistor. It is called the collector because it collects or gathers the carriers sent into the base by the emitter.collector cutoff current, collector diode, common collector amplifier
Collector Cutoff Current- The small collector current that exists when the base current is zero in a CE connection.
Collector Diode- The diode formed by the base and collector of a transistor.
Colpitts Oscillator- One of the most widely used LC oscillators. It consists of a bipolar transistor or FET and an LC resonant circuit.
COM"Computer Output on Microfilm"

- Is a technique for producing computer output directly on microfilm.
COMAL"COmmon Algorithmic Language"

- Is an enhanced version of BASIC providing structured programming features.
COMINT"Communications Intercept/Intelligence"
Common Collector Amplifier- This is an amplifier whoa collector is at ac ground. The signal goes into the base and comes out of the emitter.
Emitter Circuit- A transistor circuit where the emitter is common or grounded.
Common Mode Signal- A signal that is applied with equal strength to both inputs of a cliff amp or an op amp.
Compander- Compressor and expander

- A method of audio noise reduction used in cordless telephones
Companding- A noisereduction technique involving compression applied at the transmitter with complementary expansion at the receiver.
Comparator- A circuit or device that detects when the input voltage is greater than a pre determined limit. The output is either a low or a high voltage. The predetermined limit is called the trip point.flag, schmitt trigger, trip point
Compensating Capacitor- A capacitor inside an op amp that prevents oscillations.
Compensating Diodes- These are the diodes used in a class B push-pull emitter follower. These diodes have current-voltage curves that match those of the emitter diodes.
Compilation Error- Is an error detected during compilation
Compilation Time- Is used to describe either the period during which compilation takes place or the
length of this time.
Compiler- Is a program that translates a highlevel language program into a computer`s
machine code or some other lowlevel language.
Component Contact- The lead or area provided on a device for electrical and mecharical attachment to the circuit conductors of a substratesolder fillet
Component Identification
esm 2/c4
Component/Equipment StorageInvestigate build quality, Determine the level of equipment protection, How securely is equipment supported, Stored equipment should be easily identified, Establish how easy the system is to use, Check ESD performance, Measure the footprint, How easily can the manufacturer, Ascertain lead times, Identify value added features that will improve productivity
Composite Baseband- The raw demodulator output prior to filtering and clamping and (usually) prior to deemphasis. Contains all transmitter subcarriers.composite signal
Composite Signal- Ambiguous term variously used to refer to composite baseband or composite video
Composite Video- Complete video signal including synchronising luniinance and colour information with Teletext where transmitted. Does not include audio or data subcarriers.
Compression Contact Connector- A connector designed to electrically rnate to contact areas of two parallel substrate surfaces
Computer- Is a machine that under the control of a stored program automatically accepts and processes data and supplies the results of that processing.computer engineer, computer generations, computer operator, computer security, computer system
Computer Engineer- The person responsible for the maintenance of the hardware.
Computer Generations- A convenient means of distinguishing between advances in computer technology.
Computer Operator- Is the person who operates the computer and where appropriate responds to
requests from the operating system and from remote users in a timesharing
Computer Security- Is the protection of computer systems from theft or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
COMSAT"Communicalions Satellite Corp"
Conductor- A material that has many free electrons due to its atoms' outer ring having less than 4 electrons, which is less than the 8 needed for chemical and/or electrical stability.interconnection, multilayer, necking down, Neutral Wire, Ohm`s Law, Phase voltage, sla, thermal noise, trace width
Conference Call- Several parties connected together in one telephone conversation.smart cards
ConfigurationIs the particular choice of hardware and its connections making up a computer
Conformal Coatings-Is a thin polymeric film which conforms to the contours of a printed circuit board to protect the board's components. Typically applied at 25-250 μm thickness, it is applied to electronic circuitry to protect against moisture, dust, chemicals, and temperature extremes.
Constant- Is a data item with a fixed value
Contact GeometryThe physical shape of the land pattern provided to electrically and mechanically attach electronic devices to the substrate
Contact Pins- Leads of an electronic device, connector or module used for electrical interface
Continuous Stationery- Is paper perforated at page intervals and fanfolded to form a pack normally
used in a printer. It can be a series of preprinted forms.
Control Unit- Is that part of the central processing unit that supervises the execution of
program instructions.
Copolarised- Of the same polarisation
Copper Foil- Thin copper alloy sheet material bonded to a rigid or flexible substrate for chemically etching of circuit conductors
CORAL"COmmon Realtime Application Language"

- Is used for online realtime systems.
Cordless- A telephone that uses radio waves to send signals back and forth between the handset and the base. The base is connected to the phone lines.batteries, battery, code security, compander, dect, dual channel operations, frequency allocation changes, imtft, paging, surveillance,
COSHH"Comrol of substances hazardous to health"
Coupling Capacitor- A capacitor used to transmit an ac signal from one node to anotherdirect coupling
Coupling Circuit- A circuit that couples a signal from a generator to a load. The capacitor is in series with the Thevenin resistance of the generator and the load resistance.
Covalent Bond- The shared electrons between the silicon atoms in a crystal represent covalent bonds because the adjacent silicon atoms pull on the shoed electrons, just as two tug-of-war teams pull on a rope.
Coverlay- The insulating material or film laminated over each outside surface on a flemble substrate having etched circuit conductors
CPE"Customer Premise Equipment."
CPFSK"Continuous phase frequency shift keying"
CPH"Components Per Hour"
CPM"Control Program/Monitor or Control Program for Microcomputers"

- Is the name given to a commonlyused operating system for microcomputers that are based on the Z80 microprocessor chip.
CPPG"Crisis Pre Planning Group"
CPU"Central Processing Unit" Normally refers to the main processor or chip inside a PC

Another definition of cpu:

- Is the main part of the computer consisting of the registers arithmetic unit and control unit.
samba, scsi
Crash- Common term for when your computer freezes.boot
CRC"Cyclic Redundancy Check"
Credit Card Memory- A type of memory typically used in laptop and notebook computers.
Critical Frequency - Known as the cutoff frequency, break frequency, corner frequency, etc.compensating capacitor
Cross Assembler- Is an assembler that runs on one computer but that produces code for another.
Cross Compiler- Is a compiler that runs on one computer but that produces code for another
Crossbar Switching- A method of interconnecting signal paths by means of a horizontal/vertical matrix of switch contacts
Crosstalk- Unwanted signals passing from one circuit to another
Crowbar- The metaphor used to describe the action of an SCR when it is used to protect a load against supply overvoltage
CRPE"Centre for Environmental Physics Rescarch"
CRT"Cathode Ray Tube"
Cryptography- Refers to the making and breaking of algorithms to conceal or otherwise encrypt information
Crystal- The geometric structure that occurs when silicon atoms combine. Each silicon atom has four neighbors, and this results in a special shape called a crystal.crystal supplier
CSDN"Circuit switched data network"
CSMA"Camera Sense Multiple Access"csma c/a, csma c/d
CSMA C/A"CSMA/collision avoidance"
CSMA C/D"CSMA/collision detection"
CSOS- Configurable system on chip
CSP"Chip Sandwich Package"

"Chip Scale Package"
CSSB A/M"Companded single sideband/amplitude modulation"
CSU"Channel Service Unit"
CT"Cordless telephone"

Another definition of CT:
- Career Trainee
ct1, ct2, cti, cts
CT1"Cordless telephone mandard"
CT2"Cordless telephone standard"
CTI"Computer Telephony Integration"
CTS"Clear To Send"
CUG"Closed User Group" Enables users to be assembled into groups of varying sizes and geographical areas.
Curing Chamber - An oven or enclosure designed to cure epoides or other materials at an elevated temperature
Current Booster- A device, usually a transistor, that increases the maximum allowable load current of an op-amp circuit
Current Feedback- A type of feedback where the feedback signal is proportional to the output current
Current Limiting- Electronically reducing the supply voltage so that the current does not exceed a predetermined limitfoldback current limiting, short circuit protection
Current Mirror- A circuit that acts as a current source whose value is a reflection of current through a biasing resistor and a diode
Current Sensors, Transformers, Transducers- Aim Dynamics supplies power monitoring equipment, including split core current transformers, DC current transducers, and flexible current transformers
Current Source- This is an energy source that produces a constant current through a load resistance of any valuecurrent mirror, reductio ad absurdum, stiff current source
Cursor- Is a character that indicates the current display position on a visual display uniticons, mouse, palette, screen editing
Cutoff Frequency- Identical to the critical frequency
Cutoff Point- Approximately the same as the lower end of the load line
Cutoff Region- The region where the base current is zero in a CE connection
CVSD"Continuously Variable Slope Deltamodulation"
CW"Continuous Wave"cwts
CWTS"Chinese Wireless Telecomunications Standards Organisation"
Cycle Time- Is the time interval between the start and restart of a particular hardware
Cylinder- Is the name given to the set of tracks in a multidisk pack that can be read without
moving the reading head


[D] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter d that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [D]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
DAB"Digital Audio Broadcast"
DAC"Digital to Analogue Converter"
Daisy Wheel Printer- Is one where the characters are arranged near the ends of the spokes of a rimless wheel
DAMA"Demand Assigned Multiple Access"
Darlington Transistor - Two transistors connected to get a very high value of current gains
DARPA"Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"
DASS"Digital Access Signalling Systefn"
DAT"Digital Audio Tape"
- The medium that a machine that records sound digitally uses
Data Capture, data preparation, data preparation staff, data processing manager, datv
Data Capture- Getting(data) into the computer so that the computer can process them
Data Preparation- Is the translation of data into machine readable formdata preparation staff
Data Preparation Staff- The people responsible for the translation of data into machine readable form
Data Processing Manager- The person responsible for the overall running of the computer department
DATV"Direct Antenna Television"
DAU"Distributed Arithmetic Unit"
Day Service- PABX feature. One of two modes of operation usually equating to attended service to allow one set of PABX programming options to be used.
- A means of expressing ratios logarithmically
dBc, dBi, dBK, dBm, dBmO, dBmOp, dBmOps, dbms, DBPT, db,s dBv, dBW, dBµ
DBC- Decibels relative to carrier level
DBI- Decibels relative to isotropic soure
DBK- Decibels relative to 1K
DBM- Decibels relative to 1mW
DBMO- Decibels relative to 1mW at point of zero reference leveldBmOp, dBmOps
DBMOP- As dBmO but photohometrically weighteddBmOps
DBMOPS- As dBmOp but weighted for audio transmissions
DBMS"DataBase Management System"
- is a system that allows a systematic approach to the storage and retrieval of data in a computer often coordinating data from a number of files
DBPT"Deutsche BundesPost Telekom"
DBS"Direct Broadcasting Satellites"
- Usually refer to high power satellites
triple band lnb, uhf
DBV- Decibels relative to 1V
DBµ- Decibels relative to 1µV
DC"Direct Curmnt"

Another definition of DC:
- Direct current, such as that in a battery, or provided to the computer circuits by the power supply.
dc equivalent circuit, dc return, dc to dc converter, dc value, DC-LINK, dca dce
DC Equivalent Circuit- What remains alter you open all capacitors
DC Return- Refers to a path for direct current. Many transistor circuits won`t work unless a dc path exists between all three terminals and ground.
DC to DC converter- A circuit that converts dc voltage of one value to dc voltage at another value
DC Value - The same as the average value
DC-Link- In relation to frequency converter 40hz
DCA"Direct Chip Attach"
DCE"Data Circuit Equipment"

"Data Communication Equipment"
DDI"Direct Dialling In"
- This allows an extension line on a PBX to be called directly from the public network without operator intervention
DDR"Double Data Rate"
DDS"Digital Data Service"
DDT"Dynamic Debugging Tool"
- Is a CP/M utility program to assist with lowlevel error detection
DEA"Drug Enforcement Administration"
Debugging- Is the detection location and correction of bugsddt, diagnostic aid
Decade- A factor of 10. Often used with frequency ratios of 10, as in a decade of frequency referring to a 10:1 change in frequencycompensating capacitor
Decibel Voltage Gain- This is a defined voltage gain given by 20 times the logarithm of the ordinary voltage gain
Decision Table- Is a table showing the relationship between named variables and specifying the
actions to be taken when certain conditions arise
Declarative Statement- Is a programming language statement that provides information about the user`s
program needed at translation time such as array sizes or variable types
Declination Angle- The angle between the polar axis the polar axis and the dish axis so that it points to geostationary are
Decollate- Is to separate the sheets of multipart continuous stationery which has been produced as output from a printer
DECT"Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications"
- A sophisticated cellular like technology able to support very high user densities and provide wide band data communications as well as speech link
Default Option- Is a specific alternative action to be taken automatically by the computer in the event of the omission of a definite instruction or action
Defining Formula- A formula or an equation used to define or give the mathematical meaning of a new quantity. Before the defining formula is used for the fire time, the quantity does not appear in any other formula.
DEL"Direct Exchange Line"
- An outside line connecting to the PSTN
Depletion Layer- The region at the junction of p- and ntype semiconductorsdepletion mode MOSFET
Depletion Mode MOSFET- A FET with an insulated gate that relies on the action of a depletion layer to control the drain current
DERA"DEfence Research Agency"
Derating Factor- A value that tells you how much to reduce the power rating for each degree above the reference temperature given on the data sheet
Derived Formula- A formula or an equation that is a mathematical rearrangement of one or more existing equations
DES"Data Encryption Standard"desolder
Desolder- The removal of a device from the substrate by extracting solder from the device leads and land pattern
Device- Electronic Component
DFB"Distribted FeedBack"
DFS"Disk Filing System"
- Is the name given to the DOS in the BBC microcomputer
DFT"Discrete Fourier Transform"
DI"Directorate of Intelligence"
Diagnostic Aid- Is an aid in the debugging of programs
Diagnostic Error Message- Is one that attempts to indicate the type 6f error
Die Cut- A tool designed to cut or punch a substrate or other flat material into a predetermined and uniform finished shape
Dielectric- An electrically insulating material used to separate conductive layers of a circuit or device
Diff Amp- A two transistor circuit whose ac output is an amplified version of the ac input signal between the two basesnon inverting input
Digital Computer- Is a computer in which the data is represented by combinations of discrete pulses usually denoted by Os and Is
Digital Ogm- TAM feature where the outgoing message (OGM) is recorded in a mmmry chip mdwr than on tape
Digital Plotter- Is a graph plotter that receives digital input specifying the coordinates of the points to be plotted
DIMM"Dual In-line Memory Module"
DIN"Deutsches Institut fur Normung"
Diode- A pn crystal. A device that conducts easily when forward-biased and poorly when reverse-biased.
Diodes- Device used to transform low current ac to dc; functions as a one way valve for conducting voltagecompensating diodes, current limiting, cutoff region, electronic workbench, full wave rectifier, second approximation, surge current
DIP- Dual in line pin device or component having two rows of leaded pins for terminating to circuit conductors through holes in a substrate
Direct Access- Is the process of storing or retrieving data items without the necessity of reading
any other stored data first. Also called random access.
Direct Addressing- Is where the address specified in the instruction is the address of the location to be used
Direct Coupling- Using a direct wire connection instead of a coupling capacitor between stages
Direct Data Entry- Is the input of data directly to the computer using normally a keytodisk unit
Directive- Is zt programming language statement that instructs the translatorlead free solder
Directory- Is a list of file names together with information enabling the files to be retrieved
from backing store by the operating system
DISA"Direct Inward System Access"
- PABX feature aflowing an outside caller to access systefn features and extensions
Disassembler- Is a program that translates from machine code to an assembly language
generally used to decipher existing machine code by generating the equivalent symbolic codes
Discrete Circuit- A circuit whose components, such as resistors, transistors, etc., are soldered or otherwise connected mechanically
Discrete Components- Nonactive Passive Devices
Disk Drive- Is the mechanism that causes the disks to rotate between the read/write headsfloppy disk drive, winchester drive
Disk Map- Is the memory map for disk storage
Disk Pack- Is a set of disks fitted on a common spindle
DLC"Data Link Control"
DM"Delta Modulation"dma, dmp, dmt, dmx
DMA"Direct Memory Access"
DMP"Disposable Material Path"
DMT"Discrete Multi-Tone modulation"
DMX- Used to denote a particular type of lighting control for stage and effects usage
DND"Do not Disturb"
- PABX feature allowing a user to prevent incoming calls
DODirectorate of Operations"docsis, document reader donor, door opener, door phone, doping, dopsk, dos, double buffering, double length word down time, downlink, download
DOCSIS"Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification"
Document Reader- Is an input device that reads marks or characters made in predetermined positions on special forms
Donor- A pentavalent atom, one that has five valence electrons. Each pentavalent atom produces one free electron in a silicon crystal
Door Opener- PABX facility allowing a caller access to the building by electrically unlocking the door. Arranged through the PABX by dialling on an extension telephone.Fix and Go Gate Repair
Door Phone- PABX facility allowing communication from a PABX extension to a person at the door
Doping- Adding an impurity element to an intrinsic semiconductor to change its conductivity. Pentavalent or donor impurities increase the number of free electrons, and trivalent or acceptor impurities increase the number of holes.Tunnel Diodes
DOPSK"Differential Offset Phase Shift Keying"
DOS"Disk Operating System"dfs, ibm compatible
Double Buffering- Is the use of two buffers so that one may be filled while the other is being
Double Length Word- Is a hardware feature of many computers where two words (of say 16 bits) can be joined together and manipulated as a single (32 bit) word in the central processor
Down Time- Is a period of time during which a computer is out of action
Downlink- The signal path from the satellite to the receiving dish
Download- Is the transfer of programs and/or data from a mainframe to other usually
smaller computers. The reverse process is referred to as upload
DP"Distribution Point"dpcm, dpco, dpi, dpnss, dpo, dpsk
DPCM"Differential Pulse Code Modulation"
DPCO"Double Pole Change Over"
DPI"Dots Per Inch"
- Common measure of the resolution on a printer a scanner or a display
DPNSS"Digital Private Network Signalling Systern"
DPO"Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope"
DPSK"Differential Phase Shift Keying"
DRAM"Dynamic Random Access Memory"cache memory, vram
Drift- Change in the output voltage of a power supply over a specified period of time. All other operating parameters (load, line, etc.) are assumed to be held constant. Drift is often specified as starting after a warm-up period
Drivers- Pieces of software that "drive" a peripheral. They interpret between the computer and a device such as a CDROM
Dropwire- External grade cable suitable for overhead suspended use with no additional support
Dry Film- A dielectric layer of material laminated to the surface and covering selective areas of a substrate
Dry Run- Is the use of test data to check the paths through a program or system design without the use of a computer
DSB"Double SideBand"dsbsc
DSBSC"Double SideBand Suppressed Carrier"
DSI"Digital Speech Interpolation"
DSL"Digital Subscriber Line"dslam
DSLAM"Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplier"
DSO"Digital Storage Oscilloscope"
DSP"Digital Signal Processing"
DSR"Data Set Ready"
DTH"Direct To Home"
DTI"Department of Trade and Industry"recording telecomms, surveillance
DTR"Data Terminal Ready"
Dual Bed Of Nails- A test fixture used to electrically test bare and assembled circuit substrates on two sides simultaneously with probe contacts
Dual Channel Operations- Allows change of cordless telephone radio channel in the event of intcrference
Dual Diode- A single device package housing two diodes
Dual Spin- Spacecraft configuration in which the main body spins to provide attitude stabilisation and the antenna assembly (and often some of the electronics) are despun by means of a motor and bearing system to point continuously toward the earth
Dual Tape- TAM feature where there are separate tapes for the OGM and the ICM
Dummy Variable- Is an identifier used for syntax reasons in a program but which will be replaced
by some other variable identifier when the program is executed
Dump- Is to copy the contents of a file or the contents of the immediate access store to backing store or to an ouput device
Duty Circle- The width of a pulse divided by the period between pulses
DVD"Digital Versatile Disc"house technology
DVI"Digital Visual Interface"
Dynamic Mike- A dynamic type of microphone in which the diaphragm moves a coil suspended in a magnetic field in order to generate an output voltage proportional to the sound pressure level


[E] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter e that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [E]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
E- Erlang, often used to represent electro-(something) or electronic. Sometimes electron. In general e is very often used for many other terms like e-mail, e-commerce and so on...
E-OK- The E-prefix to the word OK
EAN"European Article Numbering Association"
EARN"European Academic Research Network"
EAX"Electronic Automatic eXchange"
EBCDC"Extended Binary Coded Decimal Code"
EBCDIC"Extended Binary Coded Decimal
Interchange Code"
EBU"European Broadcasting Union"
ECL"Emitter Coupled Logic"eclipse, eclipse protected
Eclipse- Period when the satellite passes into the Earth`s (or the Moon`s) shadow when power must be drawn from storage batterieseclipse protected
Eclipse Protected- Refers to a transponder that can remain powered during the period of an eclipse
ECS"European Communications Satellite"
ED"Energy Dispersal"eda, edc, edge, edge mount contacts, EDI, editor, edl, edo, edod ram, eds, edtv
EDA"Electronic Design Automation"
EDC"Error Detection and Correction"
EDGE"Enhanced Data rates for Gsm Evolution"edge mount contacts
Edge Mount Contacts- Contact pins or leads attached to the edge of a substrate or module assembly
EDI"Electronic Data Interchange"
- The transfer of data between different companies using mostly private networks, or over the Internet
Editor- Is a program that enables the user to inspect and alter his program or data
EDL"Evenly Distributed Load"
EDO"Extended Data Out" RAM
- The latest type of memory. Offers improved performance.
edod ram
EDOD RAM"Extended Data Out Dynamic" RAM
EDS"Electronic Data Service"
"Electronic Design Studio"
EDTV"Extended Definition TeleVision"
EEF"Engineering Employers Federation"
EEPROM"Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory"
Efficiency- The ac load power divided by the dc power supplied to the circuit multiplied by 100 percentcassegrain antenna, scalar feed shaped reflector
EFP"Electronic Film Production"
EFR"Enhanced Full Rate"
- A speech codec for better speech quality also said to be more tolerant to interference
EIA"Electronics Industry Association"eiaj
EIAJ"Electronics Industry Association of Japan"
EIDE"Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics "ide
EISA"Extended Industry Standard Architecture"bus, isa
Electricity- Is the flow of electronsbatteries history, battery, component/equipment storage
Electronic Mail- Email or e-mailnetwork
Electronic Workbench- An electronics tutor that teaches the principles of analogue and digital circuitry
Elevation- Angle between antenna bearn and horizontal plane (measured in vertical plane)look angles
ELR"Earth Loop Recall"
ELV"Earth Launch Vehicle"
EMC"Electro Magnetic Compatibility"
EMI"Electromagnetic Interference"emitter, emitter bias, emitter diode, emitter follower
Emitter- The part of a transistor that is the source of carrierscommon emitter circuit, emitter bias, emitter diode, emitter follower
Emitter Bias- The best way to bias a transistor for operation in the active region
Emitter Diode- The diode formed by the emitter and base of a transistoractive region, ideal transistor
Emitter Follower- identical to a CC amplifier
EMP"ElectroMagnetic Pulse"
EMS"Extended Memory System"
Emulator- Is a program that allows a computer to behave as if it were a different type of computerVolatile Memory
Encryption- Is the technique of encoding data to make it meaningless to those who do not
know how to decode it
computer security, des, ioca, surveillance
End Cap Termination- Electrical and mechanical contact area of a passive device
Energy Dispersal- A low frequency waveform added to the baseband signal before modulation to reduce the FM signal`s peak power per unit bandwidth and thus its interference potential
ENG"Electronic News Gathering"
Enhanced LNB- An LNB whose local oscillator is set at 9.75 GHz and receiver bandpass enhanced to cover at least 1 GHz
Enhancement Mode MOSFET- a FET with an insulated gate that relies on an inversion layer to control its conductivity
Envelope- Is a term used in describing how a musical note varies while it is soundingADSR
EOF"End Of File"
EOL"End of Life" (of a transponder or satellite)
EOT"Equivalent Oxide Thicknesses"
EPA"Electrostatic Protected Area"
EPIRB"Emergency Position Indicator Radio Beacon"
EPLD"Erasable Programmable Logic Device"
EPOC"Electronic Piece Of Cheese"symbian
Epoxy- Adhesive material used to attach devices to the substrate surface or other mechanical attachment of two or more partsepoxy cure, epoxy glass, epoxy kevlar, epoxy quartz
Epoxy Cure- The hardening of the epoxy material through the exposure to ultraviolet light and/or elevated temperature
Epoxy Glass- A composite of epoxy resin and glass fiber fillers
Epoxy Kevlar- A composite of epoxy resin and keviar fiber fillers
Epoxy Quartz- A composite of epoxy resin and quartz fiber fiuers
EPROM"Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory"
ERA"Electrically Reconfigurable Array"
ERP"Effective Radiated Power"
- Is the product of the RF power level multiplied by antenna gain relative to a halfwave dipole in a given direction
Error- Is a fault or mistake causing the failure of a coinputer program or system to
produce expected results
diagnostic error message, error message, error voltage
Error Message- Is an indication that an error has been detected
Error Voltage- The voltage between the two input terminals of an op amp. It is identical to the differential input voltage of the op amp
ESA"European Space Agency"
ESD Packaging- Is to utilize electrostatic discharge (ESD) materials in your packaging
ESP"Embedded Standard Product"esprit
Esprit- European strategic programme for research in information technologymi6
ESRO"European Space Research Organisation"
ESS"Electronic Switching System"
ETACS"Extended Total Access Communications System" (mobile phone standard)
ETSI"European Telecommunications Standards Institute"
EUMETSAT"EUropean METeorological SATellite" organisation
EUTELSAT"EUropean TELecommunications SATellite" organisation
Even Parity- Is present in any binary representation in which the number of Is in the representation is even
EWP"Electronic White Pages"
Exchangeable Disk Pack- Is one that can be removed from the disk unit for storage for later use on the
same or a compatible machine
Execute Phase- Is the part of the cycle in which the instruction is obeyed
Execution Error- Is an error detected during program execution. Also called runtime error.
Executive Program- Is a control program that schedules the use of the hardware required by the
program being run. Also called monitor supervisor program.
Exit- Is to transfer control from a subprogram back to the calling program (return
statement) or from the program entirely (stop statement)
infinite loop, return
expansion card- Circuit boards that fit inside PCs to provide extra functionalitydpi, graphics card
Experimental Formula- A formula or an equation discovered through experiment or observation. It represents an existing law in nature
Expert Mechanical Contractors- Providing Refrigeration, Commercial Kitchen Equipment, HVAC and Plumbing services in New York, Philadelphia, Washington DC, Florida and the Carolinas
Extended EF Receiver- A receiver whose 1st IF tuning range is extended from 950 MHz to 2050 MHz
Extrinsic- Refers to a doped semiconductor


[F] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter f that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [F]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
F Connector- Industry standard connector used for attatching coaxial cables from the LNB to the satellite receiver
F/D Ratio- Ratio of length of dish depth at its centre point and the diameter. Shallow dishes have higher F/D ratios
Failure- A necessary step to successcctv repair, error, journal file, mi6
Fax- Facsimiliefax/tel switch
Fax/Tel SwitchFaoice Operation
FCC"Federal Communications Commmion"
FCS"Frame Check Sequence"ioca
FDD"Frequency Division Duplex"fddi
FDDI"Fibre Distributed Data Interface"
FDMA"Frequency Division Multiple Access"
FE"Functional Earth"fec, fed, feedhorn antenna, feedthrough hole, fei, fet, fetch phase, fetch/execute cycle
FEC"Forward Error Control"
"Forward Error Correction"
FED"Field Emission Display"offset fed antenna
Feedhorn Antenna- The small widebeam antenna that illuminates (gathers signal from) the reflector in an antenna systern
Feedthrough Hole- A plated hole to connect two or more circuit layers of a substrategrid pattern
FEI"Federation of the Electronics Industry"
FET"Field Effect Transistor"fetch phase, fetch/execute cycle
Fetch Phase- Is the part of the cycle in which the instruction is copied into the arithmetic logic unit and decoded
Fetch/Execute Cycle- Is the complete process of retrieving an instruction from store decoding it and carrying it out. Also called instruction cycle
FFT"Fast Fourier Transform"
Fiber Optic- A type of technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data from one network to another.
Fiducial Targets- A shape or pattern retained in two or more locations on the substrate surface for assembly systems using vision alignment
Field- Is a predetermined section of a record (e.g. date of birth in a pupil record)field effect transistor
Field Effect Transistor- A transistor that depends on the action of an electric field to control its conductivity
FIFO"First In First Out"
- Is a term used to describe the behaviour of a queue
Fifth Generation- Is a term used to categorise the type of computer architecture that is predicted for the early 1990s
File- Is an organised collection of related recordsfilename extension, filestore
Filename Extension- Is an addition to a filename which may determine the file`s type (e.g. FRED.FOR a Fortran program; FRED.OBJ the compiled form of FRED.FOR)
Filestore- Consists of those files available online to the operating system at any given time
Fillet Junctions- Electrical and mechanical solder connection to the contacts of a device
Fine Pitch- Integrated circuit devices with center to center lead spacing of 0,032 inch or less
FIR"Finite Impulse Response"first generation
First Generation- Is the generic term used to describe those early machines which used electronic
valves and had limited size storage devices such as mercury delay lines
electrostatic and magnetic drum memories
Fixed Head Disk Unit- Is one where a separate read/write head is positioned over each track on each surface; this reduces access time at increased cost
Fixed Length Record- Is one where the number of bits (or characters) is predetermined
Fixtures- Holding plates, clamps, solder paste stencils, and other hardware used to process a circuit assembly
Flag- A voltage that indicates an event has taken place
Flange- An effect created by layering two identical sounds with a slight delay (1- 20 mS) and slightly modulating the delay of one or both of the sounds
Flash Hook- A button or action to disconnect the local loop connection temporarily. Sometimes used to signal to the exchange to put the caller on hold.
Flat Cable- Insulated multiple paths of wire or conductive material routed in parallel
Flat Plate Antenna- Brought to public eye by the now defunct BSB who named it the Squarial. Operates by adding together the signal from an array of dipoles.
Flexible Circuits- Conductive circuit etched on one or more surfaces of a flexible substrate base
Flip Flop- Is a device or circuit that can be in citlier of two states
FLIR"Forward Looking InfraRed"
Floating Load- This is load that has non zero node voltages on each
Floating Point Notation- Is a form of notation in which numbers are expressed as a fractional value
(mantissa) followed by an integer expoiient of the base.
Floppy Disk- Is a lightweight flexible magnetic disk that behaves as if rigid when rotated rapidly. It is robust and light enough to send through the post. Also called a diskette.floppy disk drive
Floppy Disk Drive- Practically all PCs come with a floppy disk drive. 3.5in HD (high density) 1.44Mb floppy disks are now the standard.
Flowchart- Is a graphical representation of the operations involved in a data processing system
Flux- Active chemical used to promote intermetahc bonding of solder to the substrate circuit and device lead or contactconformal coatings, pfd
FM"Frequency Modulation"
- The baseband signal is caused to vary the frequency of the carrier wave
fm improvement
Fm Improvement- Increase in S/N at the output of an FM demodulator relative to its input (at expense of bandwidth).
Fold Line- The bend point of a flexible circuit substrate
Foldback Current Limiting- Simple current limiting allows the load current to reach a maximum value while the load voltage is reduced to zero
Follow Me- PABX feature allows calls to be autofmtically rerouted from one exte~ to another immediately or if the call is not answered within a set number of rings
Font- Is the set of printing or display characters in a particular type style. Printers may offer a choice of fonts either by exchanging the printhead (daisywheel) or by
software control as with a dotmatrix or inkjet printer.
Fonts- Apply to both screen and printed letterscomputer security, floppy disk drive, font
Footpath- Coverage area of a satellite beam: a contour map showing EIRP PFD antenna size or G/T contours within a satellite`s coverage zone.
Foreground/Background Processing- Is a method of organising a timesharing computer system so that certain critical
tasks may claim the sole use of the computer when required while other less pressing tasks utilise the remaining time
Format- To wipe a floppy or hard disk in order to prepare it to accept datacctv lenses
Forth- is a language using a reverse polish notation with applications in controlcordless
FORTRAN"FORmula TRANslation"
- Is used for scientific programming
filename extension, integer, real number
Forward Bias- Applying an external voltage to overcome the barrier potential
Fourth Generation- Is a term used to describe those machines that are currently (mid 1980s) in common use.
FPAA"Field Programmable Analogue Array"
FPLMTS"Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication System"imt2000
FRAD"Frame Ready Assembler/Disassembler"
Frame- Is one complete television picture consisting of 625 separate lines; a new frame is transmitted every 1/25th second as two interlaced fields: the odd numbered
lines followed by the even numbered lines.
frame relay
Frame Relay- An interface specification based on LAPD (Q.921), the Integrated Services Digital Network version of LAPB (X.25 data link layer)
Fraud- A person or thing intended to deceive others, typically by unjustifiably claiming or being credited with accomplishments or qualities
Free Electron- One that is loosely held by an atom. Also known as a conduction-hand electron because it travels in a large orbit, equivalent to a high energy levelcarrier, donor, lifetime, recombination
French Intelligence- French intelligence is intercepting British businessmen`s calls after investing millions in satellite technology for its listening stations.
Frequency Response- The graph of voltage gain versus frequency for an amplifier
FRET"Fast Recovery mosfET"
Friode- Term used to describe a fried, blown, or otherwise damaged diode
Front End Processor- is a small computer that receives data from a number of input devices organise
it and transmits it to a more powerful computer for processing
FRU"Force Research Unit"
FSB"Front Side Bus"
FSIC"Function Specific Integrated circuit"
FSK"Frequency Shift Keying"
- A means of data transmisson commonly used in modems where the two states of the signal are transmitted as tones of two different frequencies
FSS"Fixed Satellite Service"triple band lnb
FTAM"File Transter And Management"
Full Adder- Is a logic circuit that adds a pair of corresponding bits of two numbers expressed in binary form and any carry from a previotis stage producing a sum and a new
carry. Also called a three input adder.
Full Duplex- A circuit which carries information in both directions simultaneously
Full Wave Rectifier- A rectifier with a center-tapped secondary winding and two diodes that act as back-to-back half-wave rectifiers
Functional Testing- Simulation testing of a finished circuit assembly


[G] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter g that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [G]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
G- Accleration Unitg3, gaas, games paddle, garbage collection, garp, gasfet, gate source cutoff voltage, gbc pi 600 pwa, gcf, gcode, geostationary orbit, geosynchronous orbit, germanium, ghz, glass reinforced resin laminate, global beam, global variable, glonass, gms, gmsk, GND, go no, go test, goes, goms, googol, gpf, gpib, gpr, gprs, gps, grandfather father son files, graphical display unit, graphics card, graphics tablet, gregorian dish, grid pattern, grid position, ground, ground loop, ground noise, group working, gsm, gsm phase 2+, gt, gui, gull wing
G3- Gadolinium Gallium Garnet
GaAs"Gailiurn Arsenide"
- High mobility semiconductor material used in low noise microwave devices.
Games Paddle- Is a general name for a handheld control device used for computer games
Garbage Collection- Is a `housekeeping` task carried out by software: many applications packages do not rearrange their disk or immediate access storage when data is deleted and
the `free space` becomes distributed throughout memory.
GARP"Global Atmospheric Research Programme"
GASFET"Gallium Arsenide FET"
Gate Source Cutoff Voltage- The voltage between the gate and the source that reduces the drain current of a depletion-mode device to approximately zero
GCF"Gsm Certification Forum"
Gcode- Is used in numerical controlled machine tools
Geostationary Orbit- The equatorial orbit used by TV satellites at a height of 35800 km (22247 miles) and speed Matched to earth`s velocity
Geosynchronous Orbit- An orbit of the earth in 23 hr 56 min 4.1 sec
Germanium- One of the first semiconductor materials to be used. Like silicon, it has four valence electrons.sigec
Ghz- Unit of frequency equal to 1000 MHz802.11g, enhanced lnb, ka band, ku band, triple band lnb
Glass Reinforced Resin Laminate- Typical dielectric base for rigid circuit substrates of epoxy resin and glass fiber
Global Beam- A satellite antenna beam covering the whole of earth as seen from the satellite
Global Variable- Is one that is available for the whole of a program including any subprograms
GLONASSGLObal NAvigation Satellite System
GMS"Geostationary Meteorological Satellite"gmsk
GMSK"Gaussian filtered Minimum Shift Keying"
Go No Go Test- A test or measurement where the readings are distinctly different, really high or really low
GOMS"Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite"
Googol- A cardinal number represented as 1 followed by 100 zeros
GPF"General Protection Fault"
GPIB"General Purpose Interface Bus"
GPR"Ground Penetration Radar"gprs
GPRS"general Packet Radio Services"
GPS"Global Positioning System"
Grandfather Father Son Files- Are the three most recent versions of a file that is periodically updated. They are
retained for security purposes.
Graphical Display Unit- Is an output device incorporating a cathode ray tube on which both line
drawings and text can be displayed
Graphics Card- An expansion card that interprets commands from the processor to the monitorV34 Plus, V34, V32bis
Graphics Tablet- Is a device used to input line drawings directly to a computer. Also known as a graphics pad.
Gregorian Dish- A system that uses an offset focused main dish and secondary subreflector that is parabolic in shape as opposed to hyperbolic as on a Cassegrain dish
Grid Pattern- A uniform space between features on a substrate usually referring to via or feed through hole patterns
Grid Position- Location of device or hole center location from a zero reference or datum point
Ground- The negative or return path. Also used to describe the ground itself, where an excess voltage can be safely drained in the event of a short Circuitground loop, ground noise
Ground Loop- If you use more than one ground point in a multistage amplifier, the resistance between the ground points will produce small unwanted feedback voltages
Ground Noise- Spurious microwave signals generated from ground temperature
Group Working- PABX feature allowing groups of extensions to be formed for routing of incoming and outgoing calls
GSM- Global system for mobile communicationsgsm phase 2+
Gsm Phase 2+- Gsm with high speed data capabilitygprs, imtsc
GT- Gain to noise temperature rationagging redailling
GUI"Graphical User Interface"
Gull Wing- Contact lead formed downward and away from the device body in a shape similar to the wing of a gull


[H] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter h that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [H]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
H Parameters- An early mathematical method for representing transistor action. Still used on data sheets.
H.323- Real-time audio and video and data over packet switched network
HAD"Hole Accumulation Diode"
Half Adder- is a logic circuit that adds a pair of corresponding bits of two numbers expressed in binary form (but cannot add in any carry) producing a sum and a carry. Also called a two-input adder.adder
Half Duplex- A circuit which carries information in both directions but not simultaneously.hdx
Half Transponder- Method of broadcasting used to transmit two channels via the one transponder
Half Wave Rectifier- A rectifier with only one diode in series with the load resistor. The output is a half-wave rectified voltage
Hands Free Dialling- Allows numbers to be dialled without lifting the handset
Hands Free Operation - Numbers may be dialled and conversations take place without the need to lift the telephone handset
HAP"High Altitude Platform"
Hard Copy- Is computer output printed on paper
Hard Disk- Is a rigid magnetic disk. It normally allows a higher recording density than a floppy disk thus providing more storage for the same physical dimensions.
Hard Saturation- Operating a transistor at the upper end of the load line with a base current that is one-tenth of the collector current.
Hard Sectored Disk- Is one that is formatted partially or wholly by markers which are put on the disk
when it is made
Hardware- The stuff that makes up the computer
Hardwired Logic- Is permanent circuitry often integrated circuit elements and their
interconnections. Sometimes called firmware.
Harmonic Distortion- The presence of harmonics in the output signal of a device which were not present in the input signal
Hashing- is the process of generating a number usually by adding the values in a field record or area of storage regardless of their meaning
HBI"Horizontal Blanking Interval"
HBT"Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor"
HCS"Hard Clad Silica"
HDB"High Density Bipolar"
HDLC"High level Data Link Control"
HDMI"High Definition Multimedia Interface"
- Audio Video interface for high definition TV and Home Theatre Systems
HDTV"High Definition Television"
- System using increased horizontal scanning rate for a sharper picture
aspect ratio, mini display port to display port adapter
HDX"Half Duplex Transmission"
Head Crash- Is the dramatic and expensive descent of the read/write head onto the surface of a disk caused by mechanical malfunction
Head End- Central distribution point for a CATV or MATV system
Head Unit- Combination of LNB polariser or OMT and feedhom and dish
Header Block- Is a block of data placed at the beginning of a file which identifies that particular file and which may describe its structure.
Hearing Aid Compatible- Compatible with hearing aids which can be switched to the T position to improve speech clarity and eliminate background noise
Heat Dissipation- Thermal transfer of heat from the circuit assembly
Heat Pressure Seal- A method for terminating conductive ribbon cable to a mating conductive pattern on a substrate
Heat Sink- A mass of metal attached to the case of a transistor to allow the heat to escape more easily
HEMT"High Electron Mobility Transistor"hemt lnb
HEMT lnb- High Electron Mobility Transistor Advanced donor techniques used in manufacturing allows charge carrier movement at lower noise temperatures.
Hexadecimal Notation- is the system using base sixteen and the digits 0 1 2 9 A B C D E F. Hexadecimal numbers are used widely in computer science and other electronic fields.
High Frequency Border- The frequency above which a capacitor acts as an ac short. Also, the frequency where the reactance is one-tenth of the total series resistance.
High Level Language- Is a problem orientated language in which each instruction may be equivalent to
several machine code instructions. It may be used on different computers by using appropriate compilers.
High Power Satellite- Satellite with transponder RF power in excess of about 100W
High Resolution Graphics- Is a term generally applied to graphical display units capable of fine definition by plotting around 300 or more distinct points in the width of a domestic TV screen
HLR"Home Location Register"
HOB- Its used in Telecommunication Field
Hold- A method of disconnecting the speech path between callers without breaking the local loopholding current
Holding Current- The minimum current through a thyristor that can keep it latched in the conducting stagesilicon controlled rectifier
Hole- A Vacancy in the valence Orbit
homerf- A group that is developing the swap specification for networking in the soho market and will eventually take over from irda.
Hook Switch- The switch which is automatically activated when the handset is placed into the cradle, breaking the connection
Horizon to Horizon- A motorised dish mount with gearbox drive arrangement. Mainly used on small dishes.
House Technology- In the brave new world of the "intelligent" house technology will solve the problems for you
HPB"HalfPower Bandwidth"
HPSCI"House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence"
HSC"Heat Shield Connection"hscsd
HSCSD"High Speed Circuit Switched data"2g+
HTML"HyperText Markup Language"
- The standard language used in the creation of web pages which can be read by web browsers
HTTP"HyperText Transfert Protocol"
- A protocol (utilizing TCP) to transfer hypertext requests and information between servers and browsers.
http://www.brand-new-battery.com/- Brand new battery pack for ACER, Dell, HP, Compaq, Sony, Toshiba, Apple, IBM, Asus, Fujitsu laptop, lowest price and best service
HUD"HeadUp Display"
Hybrid Computer- Is a computer that uses both analog and digital techniques
Hysteresis- The difference between the two trip points of a Schmitt trigger


[I] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter i that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [I]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
I/O"Input/Output"i/o device
I/O Device"Input/Output" Device
- Is a peripheral unit which can be used both as an input device as an output
device or both
IAD"Integrated Access Device"
IAP"In Application Programmable"
IAS"Immediate Acess Storage"
IBM Compatible- Originally meant any PC compatible with DOS. Now tends to mean any PC with an Intel or compatible processor capable of running DOS or Windows
IC"Integrated Circuit"icao, icons, ict
ICAO"International Civil Aviation Organisation"
Icons- They are symbols displayed on the screen as a method of offering a menuwimps
ICT"In Circuit Testing"
"Integrated Circuit Technology" "Intelligent Call Transfer"
"Interface Certification Test"
"Individual & Collective Training"
IDC Cross Connector- Bisley/2/Electronics
- Holt Large Bottom Drawer
IDD"International Direct Dialling"
IDE"Integrated Drive Electronics"
- Acontrol system designed to allow computer and device to communicate
ideal approximation, ideal diode, ideal transistor, identifier
Ideal Approximation- The simplest equivalent circuit of a device. It includes only a few basic features of the device and ignores many others of less importance
Ideal Diode- The first approximation of a diode. The viewpoint is to visualize the diode as an intelligent switch that closes when forward biased and open when reverse-biasedideal diode
Ideal Transistor- The first approximation of a transistor. It assumes a transistor has only two parts: an emitter diode and a collector diode.
Identifier- Is a name or label chosen by the programmerdummy variable, key, reserved word, variable
IDN"Integrated Digital Network"
IDSL"ISDN Digital Subscriber Line"
IEC"International Electrotechnical Commission"
IEEE"Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers"ieee bus
IEEE Bus- Is one that conforms to standards defined by the Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers (USA)
IETF"Internet Engineering Task Force"
IF"Intermediate Frequency"ifft, ifrb
IFFT"Inverse Fast Fourier Transform"
IFRB"International Frequency Registration Board"
IGBT"Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor"
IHP- Innovations for High Performance Electronics
IIR"Infinite Impulse Response"
IMD"InterModulation Distortion"
Immediate Addressing- Is where the address field itself is used to hold the data that is needed for the operation
Immediate Mode- Is the use for immediate execution of a program language statement outside a
Impedance- The sum of resistance and reactive components in an ac circuit representing the total resistance in that circuit. Capacitors and inductors have varying impedances at different frequencies. Measured in ohms.closed loop quantity, instrumentation amplifier, output impedance
IMSI"International Mobiie Subscribers Identity"
IMT"International Mobile Telecommunications"imt2000, imtds, imtft, imtmc, imtsc, imttc
IMT-2000- International Mobile Telecommunications for the year 20003gpp, fplmts, itu
IMT-DS- Frequency division version of UMTS
IMT-FT- The DECT cordless standard
IMT-MC- CDMA2000, narrowband CDMA for the USA. 3X CDMA 2000 using three 1.25MHZ channels.
IMT-SC- The successor to IS-136 mobile standard
IMT-TC- Time division duplex version of UMTS and time division SCDMA (TD-SCDMA)
In Circuit Test- The active test of each device on the assembled circuit substrate through probe contact by a test fixture
Inclined Orbit- An orbit which is offset from the equatorial plane. Expressed in temis of degrees from the equatorial plane.
Incremental Plotter- Is a graph plotter that receives (as input) data specifying increments to its current position rather than data specifying coordinates
Indexed Addressing- Is where the (direct or indirect) address is further modified by the addition of a
number held in a special purpose register called an index register
Indexed Sequential Access- Is the process of storing or retrieving data directly but only after reading an index to locate the address of that item
Induction Heating- Heating transferred by blower or fan
Infinite Loop- Is a loop from which there is no exit other than by terminating the program
Infix- Is a form of algebraic notation in which the operators are 1 d operands
Information- Is the meaning given to data by the way in which it is interpreted
Infrared- Frequency of light spectrum used to locally generate energy or heat to re-flow or liquefy solder paste alloyirda, spymaster, surveillance
Initial Slope of Sine Wave- The earliest part of a sine wave is a straight line. The slope of this line is the initial slope of the sine wave. This slope depends on the frequency and peak value of the sine wave.
INMARSAT"INternational MARitime SATellite" Organisation
- Input Bias Current- The average of the two input currents to a cliff amp or an op amp
Input Device- Is a peripheral unit that can accept data presented in the appropriate machine readable form decode it and transmit it as electrical pulses to the central processing unit.
Input Offset Current- The difference of the two input currents to a cliff amp or an op amp
Input Offset Voltage- The input offset voltage is defined as the input voltage needed to eliminate the output offset voltage. The cause of input offset voltage is the difference in the Vbe curves of the two input transistors.
- Instruction Decoder- Is the part of the central processor that decodes machine code instructions during the instruction cycle.
Instruction Set- Is the complete collection of instructions available for use in a particular machine code or assembly languagebrisc, cisc, micro code, risc
Instrumentation Amplifier- This is a differential amplifier with high input impedance and high CMRR. You find this type of amplifier as the input stage of measuring instruments like oscilloscopes.
Intapnet- An OSI network demonstration facility established by the Interoperability Technology Association for Information Processing Japan
Integer- is any (positive negative or zero) whole numberfloating point notation
Integrated Circuit- Is a solid state microcircuit consisting of interconnected semiconductor devices diffused into a single silicon chipc pack, hardwired logic, monolithic ic, so
Integrator- A circuit that performs the mathematical operation of integration. One popular application is generating ramps from rectangular pulses.
Integrity- Is the term used to describe the accuracy and correctness of data during and after
processing. Data which has not been accidentally or maliciously corrupted is said to have integrity.
computer security, dump
Intelligent Terminal- Is one where software within the terminal allows a certain amount of computing to be done without contact with a central computer
Interblock Gap- Is an area separating two recorded portions of data on backing store
Interconnection- The electrical interface of conductor circuits with electronic devicesipc, osi, profiling, solder fillet, t1
Interface- is the hardware and associated software needed for communication between processors and peripheral devices to compensate for the difference in their operating characteristicsinterface junction
Interface Junction- Electrical and mechanical joining point
Intermediate Code- is the code that is used in an additional stage in the translation process before compilation interpretation or assembly
Internet- Millions of computers interconnected in a global network
Interpreter- Is a program that translates and executes a source program one statement at a timebasic, re entrant program
Interrupt- is a signal generated by a source such as an input or output device which causes
a break in the execution of the current routine
flag, Relay, vectoring
Intrinsic- Refers to a pure semiconductordoping
Intuition- Thinking processes that cannot be explained verbally because they occur in the nonverbal right brain
Inverter- A device that converts a dc input to a pulsed output suitable for filtering into a pure sinusoidcmos inverter
Inverting Input- The input to a cliff amp or an op amp that produces an inverted outputvirtual ground
IOCA"Interception Of Communications Act"
IP"Internet Protocol"
"Intellectual Property"
ipc, ipc sm782, ipcmos, ipo, ipv6, forum
IPC- The Institute for Interconnection and Packaging of Electronic Circuitsipc sm782, ipcmos
IPC SM782- Land pattern standards for surface-mounted devices
IPCMOS"Interlocked Pipelined CMOS"
IPO"Initial Public Offering"
IPv6 Forum- An organisation promoting Internet access on 3G mobile networks
IRD"Integrated Receiver Decoder"
- A satellite receiver with a built in decoder
IRDA"Infra Red Data Association"
- The standard for exchanging data using infrared typically from PDAs or notebooks to a PC or printer
IS-136- Enhanced IS-95
IS-2000- CDMA2000 air interface standard

A successor to standard TIA/EIA 95-B
IS-95- Second generation narrowband CDMS system, used predominantly in the USA
ISA"Industry StarKJard Architecture"bus
ISB"Independent Side Band"
ISD"International Subscriber Dialling"isdn
ISDN- Is a set of communication standards allowing a single wire or optical fibre to carry voice, digital network services and videocug, ispbx, nisdn
ISI"InterSymbol Interference"
ISO"International Standards Organisation"isolation
Isolation- The measure of separation between two potentially interfering signals (In different bearns or on different polarisations)optocoupler, recording telecomms
ISP"In System Programming"

"Intemet Service Provider"
- ISPs provide access to the internet
ispbx, isppac
ISPBX- Abbreviated form of ISDN PBX. A telephone switch which can cope with digital ISDN services.

Another definition of ISPBX:
"Integrated Services Private Branch eXchange"
ISPPAC"In System Programmable Analogue Circuit"
ISS"Internet Security Systems"isscc
ISSCC"International Solid State Circuits Conference"
IT"Information Technology"iteration, itu
Iteration- Is a method of obtaining a result by repeatedly performing the same sequence of steps until a specified condition is satisfied
ITU"International Telecommunications Union"3gpp, x25


[J] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter j that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [J]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
J17- Audio de-emphasis system used on some satellites
J Lead Contacts- Device leads formed in the shape of a "J" at the contact point of the substrate land pattern
JBIG"Joint Bilevel Image Group"
JCL"Job Control Language"
- is a special language used to identify a job and describe its requirements to the operating system
JCS"Joint Chief of Staffs"
JEDEC"Joint Electronic Device Engineering Council"
JESSI"Joint European Submicron Silicon Programme"
JISC"Japanese Industrial Standards Committee"
JIt"Just In Time"
JND"Just Noticeable Difference"
Job- Is a DP term for a package of work regarded by the computer as a single unitapproximation, background job, component/equipment storage, fluid dispensing, fraud, interrupt, jcl, polygraph
Journal File- Is a permanent record of every interaction between the operating system and the
user kept to assist recovery after any systems failure occurred on a computer
Joystick- Is a convenient form of analog-to-digital converter where input is the movement of a control lever in two dimensions
Jump- Is a departure from the normal sequential execution of program steps. The jump
may be conditional or unconditional.
Also called a branch.
Junction- The border where p- and n-type semiconductors meetbarrier potential, depletion layer, interface junction, lju, pedestal, solder fillet, surveillance, thermal runaway
Justification- Is the process of moving bits of data either right or left so that the first or last character occurs in a predefined position on printed output or a VDU screen


[K] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter k that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [K]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
K Band- The frequency spectrum 10.9 to 36 GHz. Used quite widely in electronics, medicine and other fast growing industries
KA Band- Used loosely for 30/ 20 GHz satellite systems
KB- Kbit (kilobit)
- Kb (kilobyte)
KB/S- Kilobits per second (digital bitrate)
Kelvin K- Unit of absolute temperature used in noise measurement 273 Kelvin equals zero Celsius
Key- Is the record identifier used in information retrievalkey logger, key telephone, key to disk/tape encoder, keyboard, keystation keystation,. keysystem, keywatcher
Key Logger- Easy to get key logger Application Support user to track all user actions such as Internet access, logging sites, etc.
Key Telephone- Is the record identifier used in information retrievalkeystation
Key To Disk/Tape Encoder- Is an input device for accepting data from a keyboard and writing it directly to magnetic disk/tape
Keyboard- Several terms have come into use to describe layouts and facilities of teletypewriter keyboards.
1) ASCII keyboard
is one providing the full range of ASCII characters including `control` characters.
2) Numeric keypad
is one with only numeric keys often provided in addition to a QWERTY keyboard to speed purely numerical data entry
bios key to disk/tape encoder, keywatcher, magnetic tape encoder, operator`s console, teletypewriter verirication
KeyStation- Is the record identifier used in information retrieval
KeySystem- A telephone system which uses only special proprietary telephones or `keystations`
KeyWatcher- Is a modular, scalable integrated key control and management solution that's designed for interoperability with access control and other systems
KiloStream- A tradenarne of BT for basic rate access
Kimball Tag- Is a small punched card attached to merchandise which is detached when goods are sold to provide machine readable sales data
Knee Voltage- The point or area on a graph of diode current versus voltage where the forward current suddenly increases. It is approximately equal to the barrier potential of the diode
KTS"Key Telephone System"
KU Band- Frequencies between 10.7 and 18 GHz used by satellite systems


[L] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter l that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [L]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
Label- Is a means of identification used in programming to specify a particular statement (e.g. a line number in BASIC)identifier
Lag Circuit- Another name for a bypass circuit. The word lag refers to the angle of the output phasor voltage, which is negative with respect to angle of the input phase voltage.
LAN- Internet termland pattern
Land Pattern- The geometric contact shape provided on the substrate surface for the electrical and mechanical interface of surface-mounted devicescontact geometry, self centering, solder fillet
LAP"Link Access Protocol"lapm
LAPM"Link Access Protocol Modems"lap
Latch- two transistors connected with positive feedback to simulate the action of a thyristor
LCD- LCD display is one that uses liquid crystals to reflect light

Another definition of LCD:
"Liquid Crystal Display"
LCR"Least Cost Routing"
- Method of determining the cheapest method of placing a call automatically. Used when accounts are held with more than one carrier.
LD- A system now obsolescent of signallling to the exchanae the required number by transmitting a sequence of pulses. Also known as loop disconnect (LD) dialling.
Leakage Current- Is the current that flows from either AC or DC circuit in equipment to the chassis, or to the ground, and can be either from the input or the output
Lead Circuit- Another name for a coupling circuit. The word lead refers to the angle of the output phasor voltage, which is positive with respect to angle of the input phase voltage.
Lead Lag Circuit- A circuit that combines a coupling and a bypass circuit. The angle of the output phasor -voltage tray be positive or negative with respect to the input phasor voltage.
Leaded Devices- Electronic components with leaded contacts for pin through hole termination with the substrate
Leakage Current- Often used for the total reverse current of a diode. It includes thermally produced current as well as the surface leakage current.collector cutoff current, surface leakage current
LED"Light Emitting Diode"
- LED display is one that uses light emitting diodes. These are particularly used by low voltage devices such as disk indicator lights.
led driver
LED Driver- A circuit that can produce enough current through a LED to get light
Left Brain- The left half of the human brain. It is like a computer that processes words and-numbers. It operates sequentially, meaning it uses the results of each step to perform the next step.metaphor
LEO"Low Earth Orbiter"first generation
LEP"Light Emitting Polymer"execution error
Lexical Analysis- Is a stage in the compilation of a program in which standard components of a
statement such as PRINT IF etc. are replaced by internal codes (tokens)
LF"Low Frequency"cctv lenses
LHCP/LCP"Left Hand Circular Polarisation"
Lifetime- the average amount of time between the creation and recombination of a free electron and a hole
LIFO"LastIn FirstOut"
- is a term used to describe the behaviour of a stack
Light Emitting Diode- A diode that radiates colored light such as red, green, yellow, etc. or invisible light such as infrared
Light Pen- Is an input device used in conjunction with a graphical display unit. The
graphical display unit`s hardware together with special software senses the position of the pen and relays this information to the central processing unit
graphical display unit, icons
Line Box- A tradename of BT for the NTE5 master socket
Line Current- The current measured between any two conductors from a three phase delta configuration
Line Printer- Is one that prints a complete line of characters at one time and hence is generally faster than a character printerbarrel printer, chain printer
Line Voltage- The voltage measured between any two conductors from a three phase star configuration
Linear- Usually refers to the graph of current versus voltage for a resistorlinear op amp circuit, linear regulator
Linear Op Amp Circuit- This is a circuit where the op amp never saturates under normal operating conditions. This implies that the amplified output has the same shape as the input.
Linear Regulator- The series regulator is an example of a linear regulator. The thing that makes a linear regulator is the fact that the pass transistor operates in the active or linear region.switching regulator
Link Budget- The calculation of power and noise levels between transmitter and receiver (uplink or downlink) taking account of all gain and loss factors to yield operating values of C/1 anct CNR margin above threshold and ultimitte SNR or BER.
Linked List- Is a list where each item contains both data and a pointer to the next item
Lips- Low Temperature Polysilicon
Liquid Photo Imaged Polymer- Material for solder mask on rigid substrate circuit boards
Liquid Solder- A tin-lead alloy heated to a liquid point for the electrical termination of devices to a substratemigration of solder
LISP"LISt Processing"
- Is used for list processing
List- Is a linearly-ordered data structure
Live Ware- Is the term (not to be recommended) used to describe the human resources
(such as programmers or operators) associated with a particular computing requirement or installation
LJU"Line Junction Unit"
LNA"Low Noise Amplifier"
LNB"Low Noise Block"lnb - lncb
LNC"Low Noise Convertor"
LNR"Last Number Redial"
- Telephone feature allowing the last number dialled to be redialed by pressing a single button
Load Power- The ac power in the load resistorefficiency
Load Regulation- The change in the regulated load voltage when the load current changes from its minimum to its maximum specified value
Loader- Is a program that copies an object progrim held on backing store into main storefluid dispensing
Local Loop- The two-wire connection between a subscriber and the local exchangeflash hook, tda, time break recall
Local Variable- Is one whose use is restricted to a particular subprogram
Logic Element- Is a gate or combination of gates
Logic Seeking- Is the ability of a printer to organise its own operation to cope efficiently with
blank short or right justified lines
Logical Shift- Is one where the bits shifted from the end of the location are lost and zcros are shifted in at the opposite end
Logo- Is a programming language with list processing features widely known for its `turtle graphics`turtle
Look Angles- The azimuth and elevation coordinates to which an earth station antenna must be pointed to receive signals from the satellite
Lookup Table- Is a table giving a set of values for a given variablelut
Loop- Is a sequence of instructions that is executed repeatedly until some specified condition is satisfied. Nested loop is one contained within another loopclosed loop quantity, loop disconnect, loop gain, loop through
Loop Disconnect- A system now obsolescent of signalling to the exchanae the required number by transmitting a sequence of pulses
Loop Gain- The product of the differential voltage gain A and the feedback fraction B
Loop Through- Output and input connections on a receiver that allows external equipment to be inserted in the signal path
LORAN"LOng Range Aid to Navigation"
LOS"Line Of Sight"Fix and Go Gate Repair
Low Level Language- is a machine orientated language in which each program instruction corresponds to a single machine code instruction. Low-level languages fall into two distinct categories.translator
Low Resolution Graphics- Generally applied to graphical display units where simple pictures can be built up by plotting relatively large blocks of color or by using special graphics characters
LPC"Linear Predictive Coding"
LRC"Longitudinal Redundancy Check"
LSB"Least Significant Bit"
- Is the bit with the least place value in a word
LSI"Large-Scale Integration"
- Integrated circuits with more than 100 integrated components
LUF"Lowest Usable Frequency"
Lumiance- The term used to describe the monochrome part of a TV pictureluf
LUT"Lookup table local User Terminal"
LV"Low Voltage"lva
LVA"Large Vertical Aperture"


[M] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter m that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [M]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
M3vds- Millimetre wave multi-channel multi-point video distribution system
Mac- A personal computer made by Apple and which is incompatible with PCs. Developed as a rival standard its operating system looks like Windows but predates it and looks and works much better.

Another definition of MAC:
"Multiplying ACcumulator"
"Multiplexed Analogue Components"
"Multiplexed Analogue Confusion"
"Media Access Control"
machine code, machine code instruction, machine readable, macro assembler, macro instruction
Machine Code- is the set of machine code instructions for a particular computer. Any program must be translated into machine code instructions either before or during the
running of the program.
machine code instruction
Machine Code Instruction- is one that directly defines a particular machine operation and can be recognised and executed without any intermediate translation
Machine Readable- Refers to data that can be input to the computer without further preparation such as magnetic ink charactersdata preparation, kimball tag
Macro Assembler- Is one that offers the facility of expanding macro instructions
Macro Instruction- Is an instruction in a programming language that causes several instructions of the same language to be generated and that is replaced by those instructions in the program. This is usually a feature of low level languages.
Magazine- a rectangular tube carrier for storing and handling of IC devicesspymaster
Magnetic Disk- Is a storage device consisting of a flat rotatable circular plate coated on both surfaces with a magnetic materialfloppy disk, Spooling
Magnetic Drum- Is a cylindrical storage device the outside curved surface of which is coated with a magnetic materialfirst generation
Magnetic Polariser- Fixes to feedhorn. Used to bend polarised wave from say vertical to horizontal.
Magnetic Tape- Is a storage medium consisting of a flexible plastic tape covered with magnetic material on one side and kept on spoolsmagnetic tape encoder
Magnetic Tape Encoder- Is an input device that accepts data from a keyboard and writes it directly to magnetic tape
Main Store- Is the store of the computer consisting of those locations that may be addressed by the central processor directlyfifth generation, paging, program relocation, runtime system
Mainframe- Is a computer with a variety of peripheral devices a large amount of backing store and a fast central processing unit. The term is generally used in comparison with a smaller or subordinate computerdownload, mi6, mini computer
Majority Carrier- Carriers are either free electrons or holes. If the free electrons outnumber the holes, the electrons are the majority carriers. If the holes outnumber the free electrons, the holes are the majority carriers.
MAN"Metropolitan Area Network"manager/secretary operation
Manager/Secretary Operation - PABX facility where calls for the manacer are routed to the secretary who can easily transfer the call if required
MAP"Manufacturing Automation Protocol"disk map, footpath, process
MARECS"MARitime European Communications Satellite"
Margin- The extent (in dB) by which no official working (or clear sky) CNR exceeds threshold CNR or other value at which reception is deemed unusable.link budget
Mark Sense Reader- Is an input device that reads special forms (or cards) usually by electrically sensing the marks made in predetermined positions. Also called a mark sense
MASCAM"Maskingpattern Adaptive Subband Coding And Multiplexing"
Masking- Is an operation that selects certain of the bits in a register for subsequent processingconformal coatings, polymer coating, solder mask
Mass Storage Device- is a term used to denote a large capacity backing store such as a magnetic drum
Master File- Is a file of data which is a principal source of information for a job.
Maths Co Processor - A specialised chip that handles mathematical calculations for the processor
MATV"Master Antenna Television"head end
MATY- Master Antenna Television Private cable
Maximum Forward Current- The maximum amount of current that a forward-biased diode can withstand before burning out or being seriously degraded
MB/SMegabits per second
MBO"Management Buy Out"
MBR"Memory Buffer Register"
- Is a central processor register that acts as a buffer for all data transfers to and from main store
MCA- A type of bus designed by IBM to beat EISA. Although faster it never became popular because every machine that used it had to pay a royalty to IBM and because it was not backwards compatible with ISA.bus
MCM"Multi Chip Module"
MCTDMA"Multiple Carrier Time Division Multiple Access"
MCW"Modulated Continuous Wave"
MD- A system of signalling to the exchange the required number by transmitting a unique pair of tones to represent each digitmda mdf mds
MDA"Manufacturing Defects Analysis"
"Microstrip Disk Antenna"
"Mail Delivery Agent"
MDF"Main Distribution Fame"
MDS"Microwave Distribution System"
Measured Voltage Gain- The voltage gain that you calculate from the measured values of input and output voltage
Mechanical Polariser- Used to bend polarised wave from say vertical to horizontal. Works by controlled mark to space voltage pulses from indoor unit.
MEDEA"MicroElectronics Development for European Applications"
Media- Is the collective name for materials (tape disk paper cards etc.) used to hold data.cd rom, ultrasound
Medium Power Satellite- Satellite with transponder RF power in the region of 30W to 100W
Megastream- A trade name of BT for primary rate access
MELF"Metal Electrode Leadless Face"
Memory- The term normally refers to RAM (Random Access Memory). This is the kind that disappears when you turn off your computer and is much faster to access than a hard disk. It acts as a staging post between your computer`s hard disk and its main processor. memory map
Memory Map- Describes the way storage is organised in a computerdisk map
MEMS"Micro ElectroMechanical System"
Menu- Is a display of a series of option choices designed (e.g.) to lead a user through the stages of an interactive program.pulldown menu
Meridian- Plane passing through the Earth`s axis and including one`s locationazimuth
MES"Medium Edison Screw"
Metaphor- Use of words in a way that the literal left brain cannot understand, but the wholistic right brain can. crowbar
MF"Medium Frequency"mflops, mfsk
MFLOPS"Million FLoating point Operations Per Second"
MFSK"Multiple/Minimum Frequency Shift Keying"
MHS"Message Handling System/Service"
MIC"Microwave Integrated Circuit"micr, micro code, micro computer, micro instruction, micro microphones, micro processor, microfiche, microprogram
MICR"Magnetic Ink Character Recognition"
- is machine recognition of stylised characters printed in magnetic ink
micro code, micro computer, micro instruction, micro microphones, micro processor, microfiche, microprogram
Microcode- Is a software equivalent of a micro instruction written to extend the machine code instruction set of a computer without the addition of further hardwired logic
Micro Computer- Is a computer based on a microprocessor. Generally this is a cheap and relatively
slow computer with a limited immediate access store a simple instruction set and elementary backing store (e.g. floppy disks).
Micro Instruction- Is a hardwired instruction controlling the flow of data in an arithmetic logic unitmicro code
Micro Processor- Is a single chip that performs the functions of a central processing unit
Microfiche- Is an output medium consisting of large capacity microfilm sheets (sometimes card mounted for robustness) which may be randomly accessed by a special optical reader/magnifier.
Microprogram- is a sequence of micro instructions
Midband- Is the transistor's gain at its mid frequencies; the midband gain is where the transistor's gain is at the highest and most constant level in its bandwidth.
MIDI"Musical Instrument Digital Interface"
- Is a digital communications language that allows multiple electronic instruments, controllers, computers and other related devices to communicate within a connected network
midi filter
MIDI filter- A dedicated digital device, on-board processor, or computer algorithm that allows specific MIDI messages or range of messages within a data stream to be either recognized or ignored
Migration Of Solder- The flow of the liquid solder alloy during processing
Miller`s Theorem- It says a feedback capacitor is equivalent to two new capacitances, one across the input and the other across the output
Mini Computer- Is a computer whose size speed and capabilities lie between those of a
mainframe and a microcomputer
Mini Display Port to Display Port Adapter- It lets you easily connect your MacBook device to an HDTV display
Minority Carrier- The carriers that are in the minority
MIPS"Millions of Instruction Per Second"
MIT"Massachusetts Institute of Technology"
Mixed Mode Dialling- A system of signalling to the exchange the required number by transmitting a unique pair of tones to represent each digit
Mixer- An op amp circuit that can have a different voltage gain for each of several input signals. The total output signal is a superposition of the input signals.
MMD"Micro Miniature Diode"mmds
MMDS"Microwave Multichannel Distribution System"
MMI"Monolithic Microwave Integration"mmic
MMIC"Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit"
MMS"Multimedia Messaging Service"
MMT"Micro Miniature Transistor"
MMU"Memory Management Unit"
MMX"MultiMedia eXtensions"
Mnemonic- Is the name given to a memorising aid which uses a rational `sounds like what it means`basis (e.g. LDA represents LoaD Accumulator).
MNP"Microcom Networking Protocol"
Mobile Phone- A telephone with access to a cellular radio system so it can be used over a wide area, without a physical connection to a network3g, c guard, french intelligence, imt2000,f mms, voice stress phone
Modular- The smaller connector or jack now used for most telephone installationsmodular programming
Modular Programming- is one aspect of structured programming in which individual tasks are programmed as distinct sections or modules (subprograms)
Modulation Index- The ratio of focal deviation to highest modulating frequency in an FM system
Modules- Circuit Sub Assemblymodular programming
MOH"Music On Hold"
- A method by which external callers to a system hear music tones or messages while waiting to be connected to the appropriate person or department
Monitor- Your computer`s screen. Signals are sent to it from the video cardbios, cctv lenses, cctv repair, computer security, executive program, ioca, spymaster, surveillance, tempest radiation
Monolithic IC- An integrated circuit that is entirely on a single chip
MOS"Meta-Oxide Semiconductor"
- MOS consists of three layers, a metal conductor, insulating silicon layer, and a semiconductor silicon layer
MOSFET, most
MOSFET"Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor"voltage controlled device
MOST"Multimeter Oscilloscope Spectrum Analyser and Transient" Recorder
mother board- Is a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) that holds the principal components in a
microcomputer system
Motherboard- The main printed circuit board which houses processor memory and other components
Motorboating- A low-pitched putt-putt sound that comes out of a loudspeaker. It indicates that an amplifier is oscillating at a tow frequency. The cause is usually the power supply having too large a Thevenin impedance.
Mouse- Is an input device. The user moves the device around on a flat surface thereby
causing a cursor to move around the display screen in response to the
movements of the mouse.
icons, wimps
MOVPE"Metallic Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy"
MP3- An abbreviation of MPEG Audio-Layer 3.
MPEG"Moving Picture Expert Group"
"Motion Picture Expert Group"
MP3, video cd
MPP Value- Also called the output voltage swing. This is the maximum unclipped peak-to-peak output of an amplifier.
MPW"Multi Project Wafers"
MQORC"Modified Quadrature Overlapped Raised Cosine"
MRam- Magnetic ram. A non-volatile memory technology that uses magnetic, thin film elements on a silicon substrate.
MSB"Most Significant Bit"
- Is the bit with the greatest place value in a word
MSDOS- Is a disk operating system written by Microsoft used by the IBMPC and compatible machines
MSI"Medium-Scale Integration"
MSK"Minimum Shift Keying"
MSRN"Mobile Station Roaming Number"
MTBF"Mean Time Between Failures"
MTF"Modulation Transfer Function"
MTTR"Mean Time To Repair"
MUF"Maximum Usable Frequency"
Muldex- Multiplexer / Demultiplexer
Multi Programming- Is a method of benefiting from the speed of a central processing unit compared to a slower peripheral device by allowing two or more programs to be processed apparently simultaneously but actually in bursts controlled by an operating system
Multifeed- Fixed dish system with more than one LNB positioned to receive off axis satellite
MultiLayer- Construction of three or more conductor trace layers separated by dielectric materials to form a circuit substrate
MultiPlexing- The combining of independent signals into one transmission channel802.11a, voip
Multiprocessor System- Is a computer system that contains two or more processors thereby improving the processing speed or reliability of the system
MultiVibrator- A circuit with positive feedback and two active devices, designed so that one device conducts while the other cuts off
Munee- Is a signal which passes only good frequency signals from one end to another
MUSA"Multiple Unit Steerable Array"
MUSE"Multiple sub-Nyquist Sampling and Encoding"
Music Synthesizers- Is an output device that generates sounds similar to musical notes on receipt of digital signals
MUSICAM"Masking pattern Universal Sub-band Integrated Coding And Multiplexing"
Mute- A push button on a telephone which disconnects the microphone temporary to allow the user to hold a conversation without the other party overhearing


[N] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter n that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [N]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
N ISDN"Narrowband ISDN"
- The first ISDN services that were developed are now called Narrowband ISDN because they have a lesser data transmission rate than the newer Broadband ISDN
N-Type Semiconductor- A semiconductor where there are more free electrons than holes
NAB"National Association of Broadcasters"
NACCB"National Accreditation Council for Certification Bodies"
NAK"Negative Acknowledgement"
NAMAS"NAtional Measuremenl Accreditation Service"
NAT"Network Address Translation"nato
NATO"North Atlantic Treaty Organisation"
NBFM"Narrow Band Frequency Modulation"
NBS"National Bureau of Standards"
Necking Down- Reducing the conductor trace width from a wide to narrow cross section
Negative Feedback- Feeding a signal back to the input of an amplifier that is proportional to the output signal. The returning signal has a phase that opposes the input signal.
NET- Common electrical connection between two or more device contacts or leadsnetwork, networks
Network- A network is a group of computers linked together with cable. The most common form is a LAN (Local Area Network) where electronic mail and other files can be exchanged betweennetworks
Networks- Two or more devices interconnected in a single component package3gpp, axis, computer security, ioca, mi6
Neutral Wire- The conductor of a poly-phase circuit or a single-phase three wire circuit that is intended to have a ground potential. The potential difference between the neutral and each of the other conductors are approximately equal in magnitude and equally spaced in phase
NFS"Network Filing System"
NICAD"NIckel CADmium"
- A type of rechargeable battery
NICAM"Near Instantaneous Compounded Audio Multiplex"
Nickel Barrier- Plated nickel alloy on the end cap contacts of passive devices to prevent the migration of silver palladium termination material
NICQA"National Inspection Council Quality Assurance"
Night Service- PABX feature. One of two modes of operation usually equating to attended service to allow one set of PABX programming options to be used.day service
Niir- Russian Scientific Research Institute of Radio Communications
Ninhydrin- Is most commonly used to detect fingerprints, as the terminal amines of lysine residues in peptides and proteins sloughed off in fingerprints react with ninhydrin
NIO"National Intelligence Officer"
NOAA"National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration"
Node- Common point of contact for testing a circuit assemblyac ground, binary tree, coupling capacitor, floating load, virtual ground
Noise Figure- Measure of the noise contribution in an LNB. The lower the figure the less noise contribution.
Noise Temperature- Noise measurement of a system as the absolute temperature of a relative source delivering noise power. gt
Non-Inverting Input- The input to a diff amp or an op amp that produces an in-phase output
Nonlinear Device- A device that has a graph of current versus voltage that is not a straight line. A device that cannot be treated as an ordinary resistor.
Normalise- Is to represent a number in an agreed floating point notation in order to avoid
the problem of multiple representations. The form chosen is usually that which
provides maximum precision.
Normalized Variable- A variable that has been divided by another variable with the same units or dimensions
Notch Filter- A filter that blocks a signal with at most one frequency
NRZ"Non Return to Zero"nrzi
Nrzi"Non Return to Zero Inverted"
NSPG"National Security Planning Group"
NT"Network Terminator"nte, ntp, ntsc, ntt, docomo ntta, nttp, ntu
NTE"Network Terminating Equipment."
NTP"Network Termination Point"
NTSC"National Television Standards Committee"
DoCoMo- Japanese company, similar to BT in the UK, implementing a 3G system in Japan.
NTTA"Network Termination and Test Apparatus"nttp
NTU"Network Terminating Unit"
NUI"Network User Identification"
NV"Non Volatile"


[O] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter o that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [O]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
OA"Office Automation"oaa
OAA"Over Air Addressing"
Object Program- Is the translated version of a program that has been assembled or compiled
OCR"Optical Character Recognition"
- Is machine recognition of stylised characters by light sensing methods
OCS"Officer Candidate School"
Octal Notation- is the system using base eight and the digits 0 1 2 7
Octave- A factor of 2. Often used with frequency ratios of 2, as in an octave of frequency referring to a 2:1 change in frequency.
Odd Parity- Is present in any binary representation in which the number of Is in the representation is oddparity bit, parity check
OEM"Original Equipment Manufacturer"
Off Hook- The condition which nowadays indicates the active state of the local loop
Off Line Processing- Is processing carried out by devices not under the control of the central processor
Offset Fed Antenna- An antenna with a reflector that forms only part of a paraboloid of revolution usually excluding the pole or apex such that a front feed causes no aperture blockage
Offset Stepping- Staggering of circuit traces or via hole pads
OHD"On Hook Dialing"
- Allows numbers to be dialled without lifting the handset
Ohmic Region- The part of the drain curves that starts at the origin and ends at the proportional pinchoff voltagepinchoff voltage, proportional pinchof voltage, proportional pinchoff voltage
Ohm`s Law- Mathematical relationship between current, voltage and resistance stating that when a voltage is applied to a metal conductor, the current moving through the conductor is proportional to the applied voltage.
OIRT"Organisation International de Radiodiffusion et Television"
OKI- Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd., commonly referred to as OKI, OKI Electric or the OKI Group, is a Japanese company manufacturing and selling info-telecom and printer products.
OMT"OrthogonalMode Transducer"head unit
On Hook- The condition which indicates the inactive state of the local loopon hook dialing
On Line Processing- Is processing performed on equipment directly under the control of the central processor whilst the user remains in communication with the computer.
OOK"OnOff Keying"
Op Amp- A high gain dc amplifier that provides usable voltage gain for frequencies from 0 to over 1 MHzlinear op amp circuit
Open- Refers to a component or connecting wire that has an open circuit, equivalent to a high resistance approaching infinityopen subroutine
Open Subroutine- is one that is part of the main program and is copied into the program where required
Operation Code- Is the part specifying the operation to be performed
Operator`s Console- Is an input/output device that consists of a keyboard and a VDU (or in some
cases switches and display lamps). It is used by the operator to control the computer.)
OPL"Organiser Programming Language"
- Used in the Symbian platform for rapid application development
Optical Mark Reader- Is an input device that reads marks made in predetermined positions on special forms (or cards) by a light sensing method
Optimum Q Point- The point where the ac load line has equal maximum signal swings on both half-cycles
Optocoupler- A combination of a LED and a photodiode. An input signal to the LED is converted to varying light which is detected by the photodiode. The advantage is very high isolation resistance between the input and output.
OPX- An OPL extension DLL providing language extension proceduresOXH
Orthogonal- Mutually at right angles802.11a, cofdm, polarisation, polarisation rotor/rotator x/y
OS"Operating System"
- Is a program or suite of programs that controls the entire operation of the computer handling I/O operations interrupts user requests etc.
oscillations, osi
Oscillations- The death of an amplifier. When an amplifier has positive feedback, it may break into oscillations, which is unwanted high-frequency signal.compensating capacitor, ground loop
OSI"Open Systems Interconnection"intapnet
OTP"One Time Programmable"
OTS"Orbital Test Satellite"
OUM"Ovonics Unified Memory"
Outboard Transistor- A transistor placed in parallel with a regulating circuit to increase the amount of load current that the overall circuit can regulate. The outboard transistor kicks in at a predetermined current level and supplies the extra current needed by the load.
Outgoing Message- Message played to caller on a TAMdigital ogm
Output Device- Is a peripheral unit that translates signals from the computer into a human readable form or into a form suitable for reprocessing by the computer at a later stagegraphical display unit, interrupt, music synthesiser, paper tape punch, plotter, printer, speech synthesiser
Output Impedance- Another term used for the Thevenin impedance of an amplifierclosed loop quantity
Output Offset Voltage- Any deviation or difference of the output voltage from the ideal output voltage
Oval Extension- Material added to hole land patterns for added strength or to prevent drilled hole break-out on small via interconnections
Overflow- Occurs when arithmetic operations produce results which are too large to storeoverflow flag
Overflow Flag- Is a single bit that is set to 1 when overflow occurs during an arithmetic 36 Key operation
Overlay- Is the process by which convenient subdivisions (segments) of a large program
are brought from backing store for processing
Overloading- Using a load resistance so small that it increases the voltage gain of an amplifier by a noticeable amountbuffer amplifier
Overwriting- Is the erasing of a data item from store by writing another in its place
OWF"Optimum Working Frequency"
OXH- An OPL header file for inclusion in OPL source code, specifying the public interface to an OPX. Published by the OPX provider.
Oxidation- A reaction where something loses electrons. Given that oxygen will strip electrons from most elements, this has historically meant a reaction involving oxygen. A cathode (electron emitter) is constantly oxidized as it looses electrons.Redox


[P] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter p that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [P]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
P-Type Semiconductor- A semiconductor where there are more holes than free electrons
PA"Public Address"pac, packet switching, packing, packing density, pad, paging, palette, pam, panda, panel, panelization, paper tape punch, paper tape reader, paraboloid, parallel processing, parallel running, parameter, parastic oscillations, parity bit, parity check, pars, parsing, partition, partitioned cluster, pascal, passport photos, password, patch, pause
PAC"Programmable Analog Circuits"packet switching, packing, packing density
Packet Switching- Communication using a channel shared by multiple users, silent periods between a sender and receiver are filled with data from other user pairsx25
Packing- Is the compression of flies and folders in order to save storage space)packing density
Packing Density- Is a measure of the quantity of data that can be held per unit length of track on a storage medium.
PAD"Packet Assembler / Disassembler Device"graphics tablet, test pad, via pad
Paging- Is a technique in which the main store is divided into segments called pages. Large user programs may cover several pages possibly too many to fit into the available store.

Another definition of paging:
(1) Allows alert signal to be transmitted from base to handset of a cordless telephone (but not speech)
(2) Allows gcmral announcement to be made from any extension of a PABX
(3) Onsite paging uses a radio transmitter so that holders of appropriate receivers can be alerted anywhere within range of the transmitter within a budding or small complex for instance
(4) National paging relies on radio network so that holders of appropriate receivers can be alerted anywhere in the country
Palette- Is the range of display colours available in a computer system.
PAM"Pulse Amplitude Modulation"
Panda- Noise reduction system devised by Wegener (originally used for transmissions)
Panel- A substrate with specific features furnished for direct assembly machine processingpanelization
Panelization- Combining two or more substrates on a single panel for direct assembly machine processing
Paper Tape Punch- Is an output device that punches data into paper tape
Paper Tape Reader- Is an input device that reads punched paper tape
Paraboloid- A parabola of revolution. Classical shape of antenna reflector.offset fed antenna, prime focus, shaped reflector
Parallel Processing- Is the simultaneous operation of a computer on a number of tasks. To achieve this several processors may be provided in the same computer.
Parallel Running- Is a stage in the implementation of a new computer system during which the new and old (possibly manual) systems are run simultaneously to facilitate a trouble-free handover
Parameter- Is the name or value made available to a subprogram (e.g. a subroutine or procedure) from a calling program or vice versa
Parastic Oscillations- Oscillations of a very high frequency that cause all sorts of strange things to happen
Parity Bit- Is a binary digit appended to binary data. The state of the bit is such as to ensure even or odd parity as appropriate.
Parity Check- Is a test applied to binary data to check for even or odd parity as appropriate
PARS"Private Advanced Radio Service"parsing
Parsing- Is the breaking down of high level programming language statements into their component parts during the translation process (e.g. identifying reserved words and variables)
Partition- Separation of circuit functions or power and ground areapartitioned cluster
Partitioned Cluster- Electrical functions separated to accommodate isolated testing of circuit parts
Pascal- Is designed to encourage structured programmingpcode
Password- Is a sequence of characters that must be presented to a computer system before it will allow a user access to the system or parts of that system
Patch- Is a small fragment of code provided by a software supplier to enable a user to modify or correct his own copy of software without requiring a complete replacement
Pause- Inserted in stored number dialing sequence to allow time for switching to take place especially between the outside line access code and the number required when diffusing through a PABX.
PBGA"Plastic Ball Grid Array"
PBX"Private Branch eXchange"
- Often used interchangeably with PABX
ddi, station protector
PC"Personal Computer"
- is a microcomputer designed for individual use usually as a business machine rather than as a home computer
pcb, pcb layout, pcb manufacturers, PCBWeb, pci, pcm, pcmcia, pcn, pcode, pcs, pcx
PCB"Printed Circuit Board"pcb layout, pcb manufacturers, PCBWeb
PCB Layout- mem 2 4/2.5
PCBWeb- A free CAD application for designing and manufacturing electronics hardware
PCI"Peripheral Component Interconnect"
PCM"Pulse Code Modulalion"pcmcia
PCMCIA"Personal Computer Memory Card International Association"axis
PCN"Personal Communications Network"
Pcode- Is used by some Pascal compilers
PCS"Personal Communications Service"computer security, dos, expansion card, floppy disk drive
PCX"Pre-Connection Inspection"
PDA"Personal Digital Assistant"
- A small hand held terminal which recognise handwriting rather than demanding that the user can type
PDF"Pulse Density Function"
PDH"Plesiosynchronous Digital Hierarchy"
PDM"Pulse Duration Modulation"
PDN"Public Data Network"
PDU"Protocol Data Unit"
PE"Protective Earth"peak detector, peak inverse voltage, peak value, pedestal, pel, Pergonicals, perigee, periodic, peripheral device, petabit
Peak Detector- The same as a rectifier with a capacitor input filter. Ideally, the capacitor charges to the peak of the input voltage. This peak voltage is then used for the output voltage of the peak detector, which is why the circuit is called a peak detector.
Peak Inverse Voltage- The maximum reverse voltage across a diode in a rectifier circuit
Peak Value- The largest instantaneous value of a time varying voltageinitial slope of sine wave
Pedestal- The box often used by the phone company as the junction box for a number of local telephones
PEL"Picture ELement"
Pergonicals- Is a form of generated electromagnetism during two particles moving rapidly
Perigee- Lowest point (minimum altitude) of a geocentric orbit
Periodic- An adjective that describes a waveform that repeats the same basic shape for cycle after cycleAM
Peripheral Device- Is the term used to describe an input output or backing storage device which can be connected to the central processing unitbuffering, channel, multi programming
Petabit- 1,000 terabits/sec
pF- A capacitance UOM equal to one trillionth of a faradpfd, pfm
PFD"Power Flux Density"footpath
PFM"Pulse Frequency Modulation"
PG"Polyimide Glass"
Phase Current- The current measured across any one winding from a three phase delta configuration
Phase Shift- The difference in phase angle between phasor voltages at points A and Bbpsk, compensating capacitor, dopsk, dpsk, dqpsk, qdpsk, reference voltage, resonant frequency
Phase Splitter- A circuit that produces two voltages of the same amplitude but opposite phase. It is useful for driving class B push-pull amplifiers.
Phase Voltage- The voltage measured between any one conductor and the general mass of earth from a three phase star configuration
Phoneme- Is a single sound unit in speech
Photodiode- A reverse-biased diode that is sensitive to incoming light. The stronger the light, the larger the reverse minority-carrier current.
PID"Personal Identification Device"
- Is a device that is inserted into a terminal to establish the holder as an authorised user of the system. Sometimes used in conjunction with a PIN.
Piezoelectric Effect- The effect of a voltage between opposite sides of a piezoelectric crystal as a result of pressure or twisting.
PIN"Personal Identification Number"pin and socket connectors, pinchoff voltage, ping
Pin and Socket Connectors- Pin interface to a mating socket for the electrical connection of assemblies or modules
Pinchoff Voltage- The border between the ohmic region and the current-source region of a depletion-mode device when the gate voltage is zero
PING"Packet Inter-Net Groper"
- Ping is a utility used for network operating systems
PIO"Programmable Input Output"
Pipelining- Is the concurrent decoding of two or more machine instructions
Pixel- Is a contraction of picture element. As used in graphics it is the smallest element of a display.
PJ"Petroleum Jelly"
PK"Polyimide Kevlar"pks
PKS"Physically Knowledgeable Synthesis"
PL"Physical Layer"pl1, pla, PLC, plcc, pll, plotter, plug and chugger, pluge
PL1"Programming language 1"
- Is used for both scientific and business computing
PLA"Programmable Logic Array"
PLC"Programmable Logic Controller"plcc
PLCC"Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier"
PLL"Phase Locked Loop"
Plotter- Is an output device which draws lines on paperdigital plotter, electronic workbench, incremental plotter
Plug and Chugger- Someone who always reaches for a calculator and a book of formulas. One who substitutes values into one formula after another, hoping to get the right answer. One who is seldom sure of the answer because he or she hasn't thought the problem through.
PLGUE"Picture Line Up Generating Equipment"
PM"Phase Modulation"PMPO, pmr
PMPO"Pick Music Power Output"
PMR"Private Mobile Radio"

"Personal Mobile Radio"
PNP Transistor- A semiconductor sandwich. It contains an n region between two p regions
POCSAG"Post Office Code Standardisation Advisory Group"
POF"Plastic Optical Fibre"
Polar Mount- Is a movable mount for satellite dishes that allows the dish to be pointed at many geostationary satellites by slewing around one axis
Polarisation- The property by which an electromagnetic wave exhibits a direction (or rotation sense) of vibration giving the opportunity for frequency reuse by orthogonal polarisationspolarisation rotor/rotator
Polarisation Rotor/Rotator- A device that permits selection of one of two orthogonal polarisation or of any polarisation angle. Not a polariser.
Polariser- A birefringent component in waveguide or antenna system which converts between linear (plane) and circular polarisation. Not a polarisation rotor.head unit, magnetic polariser, mechanical polariser, ratio, skew
Polarity- The term used to describe positively and negatively charged particles or bodies eg. one terminal of a battery has a positive charge

Another definition of Polarity:
- The + and - of electrical current flow. When testing, the red probe of the VOM goes to the + and the black goes to the - or ground
altai tie clip microphone, batteries, Zero Crossing
Polarized Parts- Devices that must be mounted in a predetermined direction or orientation
Polling- Is the testing of a terminal in a multi-access system to establish whether it is holding data for transmission to the computer. In systems which accept data from remote data storage devices polling includes the process of collecting this data.
Polygraph- Popularly referred to as a lie detector test, is a device or procedure that measures and records several physiological indicators such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions.
Polyimide- A stable resin film used for the base material of flexible substrate circuitspolyimide glass, polyimide quartz
Polyimide Glass- Polyimide resin and glass fiber substrate material
Polyimide Quartz- Polyirnide resin and quartz fiber substrate material
Polymer Coating- Material used for solder masking on substrates
Poodle- A small, fluffy, dog
Pop2- Is used for list processing
Port- Term referring to the system connection point for an exchange line or extensionportability
Portability- Is the ease with which a piece of software can be run on a variety of machines or under the control of a variety of operating systemsintermediate code
POS Terminal"Point Of Sale" Terminal
- Is an input device used to record at the point of sate the details relating to the sale of goods for display to the customer and for subsequent transmission direct to the computer system for detailed
stock control
Positive Clamper- A circuit that produces a positive do shift of a signal by moving all the input signal upward until the negative peaks arc at zero and the positive peaks are at 2Vp
Positive Feedback- Feedback where the returning signal aids or increases the effect of the input voltagelatch, multivibrator
Positive Limiter- A circuit that clips off the positive parts of the input signal
POT"Plain Old Telephone"potentiometers, pots
Potentiometers- Variable or adjustable resistor
POTS"Plain Old Telephone System"
Power Bandwith- The highest frequency that an op amp can handle without distorting the output signal. The power bandwidth is inversely proportional to the peak value
Power Dissipation- The product of voltage and current in a resistor or other non-reactive device. Rate at which heat is produced within a device.foldback current limiting, switching regulator
Power Fail Telephone- A telephone which will automatically be connected to a PSTN line when a PABX becomes ino rated due a power failure
Power Gain- The ratio of output power to input power
Power Transistor- A transistor that can dissipate more than 0.5 W. Power transistors are physically larger than small-signal transistors.
PPL"Phonographic Performance Ltd."
PPM"Pulse Position Modulation"
PPRK"Palm Pilot Robot Kit"
PPV"Pay Per View"
- A pay TV system that allows an individual viewer to purchase access to special events
PRA"Primary Rate Access"
PRBS"Pseudorandom Binary Sequence"
Pre Emphasis- A method of improving SNR in a FM system by increasing deviation at high (relative to low) baseband frequencies according to a defined (I3G or CCIR) function.
Preblanked Units- Die cut or machined substrates
Predicted Voltage Gain- The voltage gain you calculate from the circuit values on a schematic diagram
Preformed Leads- Leads prepared for direct assembly processing
PRF"Pulse Repetition Frequency"
PRI"Primary Rate Interface"prime focus, print hammer, printer, printer quality, printout, privacy, private mobile radio
Prime Focus- The focal point of a paraboloid reflector (or part of a paraboloid). A feed system placed at that point.
Print Hammer- Is the component causing the contact between the character ribbon and paper in an impact printer
Printer- Is an output device producing characters or graphic symbols on paper. There are many methods of printing and of organising the operation of a printer and the following terms may be applied to any specific printer as appropriate.printer quality
Printer Quality- Is the standard of word processing output.
Printout- Is printed output from the computeractivity report
Privacy- Is the recognition of the private nature of certain data. In consideration of privacy safeguards are usually built into systems which hold confidential data to prevent unauthorised access.passport photos, surveillance
Private Mobile Radio- Means of communication used by most mini cab firms and some other businesses
Process- A step-by-step routine followed to solve a problem. It is like a map that gets you from the given data to the final solutionprocess friendly
Process Friendly- Compatible materials in the assembly processing of surface-mounted devices to a circuit substrate
Profiling- Temperature adjustment for the re-flow processing of solder paste for electrical and mechanical interconnection of SMT devices to the substratepunch press
Program- Is a complete set of program statements structured in such a way as to specify an algorithmprogram counter, program execution, program generator, program relocation, program statement, programmer, programming code, programming languages
Program Counter- Is the register that contains the address of the next machine code instruction to the expected. Also referred to as Instruction Address Register (IAR).
Program Execution- Is the carrying out of instructions specified by a computer programexecution error
Program Generator- Is a program that assists users to write their own programs by expanding simple statements into program code
Program Relocation- Is the moving of a program stored in one area of main store (by the OS) to another area of main store
Program Statement- Is usually a source language instruction which generates several machine code instructions when translated
Programmer- Is the person responsible for writing computer programsapplications programmer, c, reserved word, SDK, source program, sprite, systems programmer
Programming Code- A set of commands created in the process if writing of a computer program i.e. source codereverse engineered code
Programming Languages- These are artificial languages constructed in such away that people and programmable machines can communicate with each other in a precise and intelligible way
PROLOG"PROgramming in LOGic"
- Is a programming language based on mathematical logic with applications in information retrieval
PROM"Programmable Read Only Memory"
Propagation Delay- The specified amount of time for a signal to pass through a previously closed signal path. The delay must be considered, for example, when the signal is used to synchronize other signals, or is being used in a Clock / Data configuration. This is due to both the electrical length of the signal path, and any active components in the signal path.
Proportional Pinch Of Voltage- The border between the ohmic region and the current-source region for any gate voltage
Proportional Pinch Off Voltage- The border between the ohmic region and the current-source region for any gate voltage
Prototype- A basic circuit that a designer can modify to get more advanced circuits

Another definition of Prototype:
- Limited quantity assembly processing of a product
micro microphones
PRP Logic- Surround sound type effect developed by Dolby Laboratories to simulate cinema/ theatre sound in the home; usually five speakers.
PRS"Performing Right Society"
PSD"Power Spectral Density"psdn
PSDN"Packet Switched Data Network"
PSM"Phase Shift Masking"
PSN"Public Switched Network"
PSSS"Packet Switched System/Service"
PSTN"Public Switched Telephone Network"

"Packet Switched Telephone Network"
call waiting, power fail telephone, ren
Pseudorandom Number Generator- Is a piece of software that generates sequences of `pseudorandom` numbers that obey all the above rules but can be repeated by starting the sequence at the same point
PT"Packet Terminal"pth, ptm, pto, ptt
PTH- Pin through hole lead device or component
PTM"Pulse Time Modulation"
PTO"Public Telecommunications Operator"
- A company offering telephone/data services
PTT"Posts Telegraphs and Telecommunications"

"Push To Talk"
PU"Polyurethane"pulldown menu, pullup resistor, pulse dialing, pulse dialling, punch and retain, punch press, punched paper tape, push pull connection
Pulldown Menu- Is one available to the user at any time which when requested appears on the screen typically obscuring part of the work in hand
Pullup Resistor- A resistor that the user has to add to an IC device to make it work properly. One end of the pullup resistor is connected to the device, and the other end is connected to the positive supply voltage.
Pulse Dialing- The method of dialing by which electrical pulses tons and offs) are "counted" by the phone company`s switching computer
pulse Dialling- A system now obsolescent of signaling to the exchange the required number by transmitting a sequence of pulses. Also known as loop disconnect (LD) dialling.tone switching
Punch and Retain- Individual substrate units die punched from and returned to a panel for assembly processing
Punch Press- Machine for punch press processing or profiling of materials
Punched Paper Tape- Is a continuous strip of paper used to represent data by the patterns of the holes punched in a recognised code in the strip of paper
Push Pull Connection- Use of two transistors in a connection that makes one of them conduct for half a cycle while the other is turned off. In this way, one of the transistors amplifies the first half-cycle, and the other amplifies the second hall-cycle.
PWM"Pulse Width Modulation"


[Q] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter q that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [Q]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
Q&R"Quality and Reliability"
QA"Quality Assurance/Assessment"qam, qask
QAM"Quadrature Amplitude Modulation"
QASK"Quadrature Amplitude Shift Keying"
QC"Quality Control"qcif
QCIF"Quarter Common Image Format"
QDPSK"Quadrature Differential Phase Shift Keying"
QDU"Quantisation Distortion Units"
QEMM"Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager" Quarterdeck Corp.
QFA"Quick File Access"
QFP"Quad Flat Pack"
- IC device with component leads extending from each of the four sides
QFSK"Quadrature Frequency Shift Keying"
QIC"Quarter-Inch Cartridge"
QORC"Quadrature Offset Raised Cosine"
QOSRC"Quadrature Overlapped Squared Raised Cosine"
QPR"Quadrature Partial Response"
QPSE"Queued Packet Synchronous Exchange"
Queue- Is a list where any new item is added to one end and items are deleted from the othercamp on busy, interrupt, voip
QVGA"Quarter Video Graphics Array"


[R] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter r that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [R]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
RACE"Research in Advanced Communications for Europe"
RADAR"Radio Detection And Ranging"
RAG"Row Address Generator"
RAID"Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks"

"Redundant Arrays of Independent Drives"

"Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Drive"
Rain Outrage- Loss of signal due to absorption and thermal noise accompanying heavy rainfall
RALU"Register Arithmetic Logic Unit"
RAND"Random"random numbers
Random Numbers- Are those generated without any detectable bias or pattern
RAP"Rapid Application Prototyping"
RARP"Reverse Address Resolution Protocol"
RAS"Random Access Storage"

"Reliability Availability and Serviceability"

"Row Address Select"
RASAPI"Remote Access Service Application Programming Interface"
Ratio- The ratio of the total gain and the total noise. Usually referred to in dB terms about the signal`s noise and gain in the do link via the dish polariser and I.NB.ac current gain, ac resistance, aspect ratio, carrier to noise ratio, cctv lenses, modulation index, power gain snr, sparklies, third generation, transconductance, transfer function, ultrasound
Rat`s Nest Technique- Preliminary interconnect planning for electrical circuits
Raw Data- Is data as input to the computer before any validation or processing
RB"Right Button" (Of 2 or 3 button mouse)rbbs
RBBS"Remote Bulletin Board System"
RCL"Rotate Carry Left"
RCP"RightHand Circular Polarisation"
RDA"Remote Database Access"
RDB"Receive Data Buffer"

"Relational DataBase"
RDBMS"Relational Database Management System"
RDCLK"Received Timing Clock"
RDS"Radio Data Service"rdsr, rdss
RDSR"Receiver Data Service Request"
RDSS"Radio Determination Satellite Service"
Re Entrant Program- Is one where a single copy of the program may be shared at the same time between several users
Real Number- Is any number represented with a fractional part. In FORTRAN and some other high level languages `real` is used to indicate floating point storage.
Realtime Clock- Is an electronic unit that maintains the time of day in a special register that may be accessed by the programmer
Realtime System- Is a system that is able to receive continuously changing data from outside sources and to process that data sufficiently rapidly to be capable of influencing the sources of data
Recombination- The merging of a free electron and a holelifetime
Record- Is a collection of related items of data treated as a unit for processingrecord format, recording adaptor, recording telecomms
Record Format- Is the description of the contents and organisation of a record usually part of a program specification
Recording Adaptor- For the recording of two way speech on the telephone line
Recovery- Is the process of returning to normal operation after an error. The procedures may differ depending on the type of error or the type of program in use at the time and may include ensuring that the data has not been corrupted.fret, journal file, reverse engineered code, schottky diode, surveillance
Rectifier Diode- A diode optimized for its ability to convert ac to dc
Recursive Subprogram- Is one that include among the statements making up the subprogram a further call to the same program
Redoc- A reaction where oxidation and reduction take place
Reduction To Absurdity- A trick used when a device may be operating as a current source or as a resistor
Reference Voltage- Is an electronic device that ideally produces a fixed (constant) voltage irrespective of the loading on the device, power supply variations, temperature changes, and the passage of time
Reflow- The process of heating solder paste to a liquid form to accomplish electrical and mechanical interface of components to the substrateinfrared, lead free solder, profiling, self centering, solder mask barrier, tombstoning
Register- Is a location which is sometimes protected used for specific purposes onlyaccumulator, indexed addressing, masking, mbr, program counter, realtime clock
Relational Operator- Is a symbol used to express a relationship to be tested
Relaxation Oscillator- A circuit that creates or generates an ac output signal without an ac input signal. This type of oscillator depends on the charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor.
Relay- A Solid State relay is a switching device that completes or interrupts a circuit electrically and has no moving parts

- A Mechanical relay is an electromechanical device that closes contacts to complete a circuit or opens other contacts to interrupt a circuit
frame relay, surveillance


"Ring Error Monitor"
remote access, Remote Sensing, removal system
Remote Access- TAM feature whereby messages left can be replayed over the telephone line to the user who may signal to the TAM using special
toll saver
Remote Sensing- The use of satellite-borne instruments to determine the location and amount of resources on surface of the earth
Removal System- Tools or equipment designed for the removal of surface mounted devices

"Ringer Equivalence Number"
REP"REPeat"repe, repne, repnz, report generator, repz
REPE"Repeat while Equal"
REPNE"Repeat while Not Equal"
REPNZ"Repeat while Not Zero"
Report Generator- Is a program that gives the norispecialist user the capability of producing reports from one or more files through easily constructed statements
REPZ"Repeat while Zero"
RES"Remote Execution Service"


reserved word, reset, resistor, Resonance, resonant frequency
Reserved Word- Is an identifier used by the system and therefore not available to the programmer or user
Reset- Is to return a computer system to its initial state (e.g. by restoring all registers to known values).
Resistor- A device for limiting or restricting electrical current flow in a circuit, similarly in an electrical circuit, the opposition to electron movement or current flow is called resistancecurrent mirror, power dissipation, pullup resistor, reductio ad absurdum, RFI-FILTER, short circuit output current, swamped amplifier, Volt (Voltage)
Resonance- A frequency at which a material object will vibrate. In a filter with resonance, a signal will be accentuated at the cutoff frequency.
Resonant Frequency- The frequency of a lead-lag circuit or the frequency of an LC tank circuit where the voltage gain and phase shift are suitable for oscillationsphase shift
RET"Resolution Enhancement Technology"

retention mounting tabs or bosses, return
Retention Mounting Tabs or Bosses- Mechanical features for mounting or strengthening large components or connectors
Return- Is to transfer control or exit from a subprogram back to the calling program. A subprogram may have more than one return instructionbi directional printer, cctv repair, dc return, ground, nagging redailling, nrzi, reset, spring action
Reverse Bias- Applying an external voltage across a diode to aid the barrier potential
Reverse Polish Notation- Is a form of postfix notationforth
Reverse Saturation Current- The same as the minority carrier current in a diode. This current exists in the reverse direction.
Rework- Correcting defects that do not meet the established quality requirement specified for the productcomponent/equipment storage, lead free solder, surveillance, touch up tools
RFL"Radio Frequency Interference"RFI-FILTER
RFI-Filter- Is a type of electric or electronic emission that can degrade, impair or prevent electrical circuit performance
RGB"Red Green Blue"
- Describes a method of connecting a computer to a (colour) display in which the colour information is transmitted as three separate signals. RGB signals do not need to be decoded as does a PAL signal.
RHCP"RightHand Circular Polarisation"rhcp/rcp
RHCP/RCP"RightHand Circular Polarisation"
RID"Records Integration Division"
Right Angle Mounting- Component or device designed to mount at a ninety degree rotation from the substrate surface
Right Brain- The right half of the human brain. It contains a visual and nonverbal processing unit unlike any computer currently in existence.intuition, metaphor
Rigid Circuits- Non-flexible substrate with one or more conductive circuit layers for interconnecting electronic devices
RIMM"Rambus In-line Memory Module"
Ripple- With a capacitor input filter, this is the fluctuation in load voltage caused by the charging and discharging of the capacitorripple rejection
Ripple Rejection- Used with voltage regulators. It revs you how well the voltage regulator rejects or attenuates the input ripple.
RISC"Reduced Instruction Set Computer"
RKE"Remote Keyless Entry"
RLC"Run Length Code"
RMS"Root Mean Square"rms value
RMS Value- Used with time varying signals. Also known as the effective value and the heating value.
Robo"Remote Office Branch Office"robotic equipment
Robotic Equipment- Automated machines for the assembly of electronic products
Robustness- Is the ability of a system to cope with errors and mishaps during program execution
ROMP"Regionally Organised Modem Pools"
Rotary Dialing- The pulse method of dialing in which a rotary dial causes a series of ons and offs to be sent. These are "counted" and the connection is made.
Rounding- Is the process of approximating a number by its nearest equivalent to a set number of significant figuresrounding error
Rounding Error- Is the error introduced by rounding
Routing Template- Profile guide for the finished shape of a rigid substrate
RS232C- Serial computer interface commonly used to connect to printers
RSA"Rivest Shamir and Adlerman"
RTC"Real Time Clock"
RTD"Resistance Temperature Detector"
RTL"Relay Transformer Logic"
RTS"Request To Send"
RTTE"Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment"
RTTY"Radio Teletypewriter"
RTZ"Return To Zero"
Run- Is the act of executing a programrun time, runtime system
Run Time- Is either the length of time between the beginning and completion of the execution of a program or the time during which the program is being executed
Runtime System- Is the complete set of software that must be in main store while a user`s program is being executed
Rī Parameters- One way to characterize a transistor


[S] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter s that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [S]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
S100 Bus- Is a standard bus specification usually used in small personal microcomputers so called because it can link a maximum of 100 components
Safety Factor- The leeway between the actual operating current, voltage, etc. and the maximum rating specified on a data sheet
SAMBA"SAmsung cpu embedded Microcontroller Bus Architecture"
SAR"Small Aperture Radar"

"Synthetic Aperture Radar"

"Specific Absorption Rate"
SARBE"Search And Rescue Beacon Equipment"
Satellite Radio- A technology for streaming audio from satellites to stations on the Earth (or in the air) for reception
Saturated Current Gain- The current gain of a transistor in the saturation region. This value is less than the active current gain. For soft saturation, the current gain is slightly less than the active current gain. For hard saturation, the current gain is approximately 10.
Saturation Point- Approximately the same as the upper end of the load line. The exact location of the saturation point is slightly lower because the collector-emitter voltage is not quite zero
Saturation Region- The part of the collector curves that starts at the origin and slopes upward to the right until it reaches the beginning of the active or horizontal region. When a transistor operates in the saturation region, the collector-emitter voltage is typically only a few tenths of a volt.
SAW"Surface Acoustic Wave"
SCADA"Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition"
Scalar Feed- The wide flare corrugated horn antenna feed now standard in 4GHZ hoMe TV110
Scart- European 21 pin connector now commonly used by European TVs videos and satellite receivers. Sonic receivers have as many as four scart sockets.
SCFM"Sub Carrier Frequency Modulation"
Scheduling- Is the method by which central processing unit time is allotted in a multi access system
Schmitt Trigger- A comparator with hysteresis. It has two trip points. This makes it immune to noise voltages, provided their peak to-peak values are less than the hysteresis.
Schottky Diode- A special-purpose diode with no depletion layer, extremely short reverse recovery time, and the ability to rectify high-frequency signals.
SCO"Synchronous Connection Orientated"
SCPI"Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments"
SCRAM"Static Cmos Random Sccess Memory"
Scratch- Is to release a storage area for subsequent reusescratch file, scratch pad, scratch tape
Scratch File- Is a temporary storage area usually held in backing store for use by a program during execution. Also called a workfile.
Scratch Pad- Is a section of immediate access store reserved for temporary information for immediate use. Also called a working store.
Scratch Tape- Is a magnetic tape used for a scratch file
Screen Editing- Is the process of changing stored data or programs by the alteration of characters displayed on a VDU using a cursor to indicate position
Scrolling- Is the action of a VDU when displaying text of `rollingup` the screen. As each new line of text appears at the bottom a line of existing text disappears from the top.
SCSI"Small Computer System Interface"SCSI Port
SCSI Port- The port on the back of the instrument to which SCSI devices are connected
SDH"Synchronous Digital Hierarchy"
SDK"Software Development Kit"
- A programming package that enables a programmer to develop applications for a specific platform. Typically an SDK includes one or more APIs, programming tools, and documentation.
SDLC"Synchronous Data Link Control"
SDM"Space Division Multipilex"sdma
SDMA"Space Division Multipilex Access"
SECAM"System Essentially Contrary to American Method"
Second Approximation- An approximation that adds a few more features to the ideal approximation. For a diode or transistor, this approximation includes the barrier potential in the model of the device. For silicon diodes or transistors, this means 0.7 V is included in the analysis.
Second Generation- Is the generic term used to describe those machines in which the transistor replaced the valve as the basic componenttia/eia 136
Second Hand Kit- The alternative to buying new
Secondary Assembly- Operations following the primary assembly process
Secondary Hot Air Process- Reflow of solder with heated air or gas for mounting devices following the primary assembly process
Secondary Wave Solder- The soldering of leaded and epoxy attached devices in a liquid wave of molten solder alloy
Secrecy- A pushbutton on a telephone which disconnects the microphone temporary to allow the user to hold a conversation without the other party overhearingmi6, polygraph
Sector- Is the smallest addressable portion of the track on a magnetic tape or drum storestorage
Security- Is the establishment and application of safeguards to protect data software and computer hardware from accidental or malicious modification destruction or disclosure
Segmentation- Is the process of dividing the program into sections (segments or modules) which can be independently executed or independently changed. Can also refer to the use of comments statements meaningful variable names and other helpful features written into a program.paging
Self Bias- The bias you get with a JFET because of the voltage produced across the source resistor
Self Centering- An alignment to the center location on the land pattern during the reflow solder process
Semantics- Is the meaning attached to words or symbols in programming statements. Semantics is not concerned with the way words are combined in a single statement.syntax programming language
Sequential (serial) Access- Is the process of storing or retrieving data items by first reading through all previous items to locate the one required
Series Regulator- This is the most common type of linear regulator. It uses a transistor in series with the load. The regulation works because a control voltage to the box of the transistor changes its current and voltage as needed to keep the load voltage almost constant.linear regulator
Series Switch- Is a type of JFET analog switch where the ]FET is in series with the load resistor
Shaped Beam- Flame of irregular cross section produced by multiple feed or shipped reflector techniques.zone beam
Shaped Reflector- Techniques for controlling beam pattern aperture illumination noise and sidelobe power and for increasing antenna efficiency by variation of antenna (and sul)reflector) shape from the true paraboloid hyperboloid
SHF"Super High Frequency"
Shift- Is an operation that moves the bits held in a store location to the left or right as specified
Short- One of the common troubles that may occur. A short occurs when an extremely small resistance is approaching zeroshort circuit output current, short circuit protection
Short Circuit Output Current- The maximum output current that an op amp can produce for a load resistor of zero
Short Circuit Protection- A feature of most modern power supplies. It usually means the power soppy has some form of electronic current limiting that prevents excessive load currents undo shorted-load conditions
Shunt Switch- A type of JFET analog switch where the JFET is in shunt with the load resistor
SIA"Semiconductor Industry Association"
Side Loading- Stress introduced to the component or substrate from one or more sides
Side Lobe- Undesirable characteristic of clish to reflect or receive signal off axis of the main transmit or receive lobe
SIGE"SIlicon GErmanium"sigec
SIGEC"SIlicon GErmanium Carbon"
Sign and Magnitude- Is a method of representing numbers by allocating one bit of a binary word usually the most significant bit to represent the sign of the number held in the remaining bits of the word
Sign Bit- Is a single bit used to indicate the sign of a number usually 0 for positive 1 for negativeshift
Signal to Noise Ratio- A method of indicating the strength of a signal compared with that of the noise accompanying it. Usually expressed in decibels.
SILEX"Semiconductor Laser Inter Satellite Link Experiment"
Silicon- The most widely used semiconductor material. It has 14 protons and 14 electrons in orbit. An isolated silicon atom has four electrons in the valence orbit. A silicon atom that is part of a crystal has eight electrons in the valence orbit because the four neighbors share one of the electrons.silicon controlled rectifier, silicon disk
Silicon Controlled Rectifier- A thyristor with three external leads called the anode, cathode, and gate. The gate can turn the SCR on, but not off.
Silicon Disk- Is RAM that is addressed as if it were a very fast random access disk
SIMM"Single In Line Memory Module"
Simpkx- A circuit which carries information in only one direction.
SINAD"Signal Noise And Distortion"
Sink- It is the point that allows current to flow into ground or out of ground
SIP"Single In Line" pin (leaded) module
SIS"Sound in Syncs"
SIV"Sound In Video"
Skew- Fine tuning of polariser to take account of differing plane of signal polarisation due to each satellite`s offset relative to the receive site
Sky Noise- Electromagnetic radiation from galactic sources and thermal agitation of atmospheric gases and particles
SLA"Semiconductor Laser Amplifier"slant range
Slant Range- Path length between satellite and earth station
Slew Rate- The maximum rate that the output voltage of an op amp can change. It causes distortion for high frequency large-signal operation.
SLIC"Subscriber Line Interface Circuit"
SM"Surface Mount"small signal operation, small signal transistor, smart cards, smatv, smd, smds, smema, smobc, smpte, smqroc, smt, smta
Small Signal Operation- This refers an input voltage that produces only small fluctuations in the current and voltage. Our rule for small signal transistor operation is a peak to-peak emitter current less than 10 percent of the do emitter value.
Small Signal Transistor- A transistor that can dissipate 0.5 W or less
Smart Cards- A plastic card with a built-in microprocessor, used typically to perform financial transactions
SMATV"Satellite Master Antenna Television"
SMD"Surface Mount Device"smds
SMDS"Switched Multi-megabit Data Service"
SMEMA"Surface Mount Equipment Manufacturer`s Association"
SMOBC"Solder Mask Over Bare Copper"
SMPTE"Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers"
SMQORC"Staggered Modified Quadrature Overlapped Raised Cosine"
SMT"Surface Mount Technology"smta
SMTA"Surface Mount Technology Association"
SNA"Systems Network Architecture"
SNR"Signal Noise Ratio"snr - s/n
SNR S/N"Signal To Noise Ratio"
SO"Small Outline"
- Miniature surface mounted integrated circuit package
SOAP"Simple Object Access Protocol"
- Provides a way for applications to communicate with each other over the Internet, independent of platform
SOC"System On Chip"
SODIMM"Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module"
Soft Keys- Buttons on telephone apparatus which can be programmed to perform specific functions
Soft Saturation- Operation of the transistor at the upper end of the load line with just enough box current to produce saturation
Soft Sectored Disk- Is one that is formatted by designating sectors by information written on the disk by a program
Software- Consists of programs routines procedures and their associated documentation which can be implemented on a computer systemsoftware package
Software Package- Is a fully documented program or set of programs designed to perform a particular task (eg a word processor)
SOIC"Small Outline IC"
SOJ IC"Small Outline IC with J-Lead Configuration"
Solder Buildup- Excessive solder at the connection of a device to the substrate circuit
Solder Connection- Termination of device contacts to the substrate circuit with tin-lead alloyfillet junctions
Solder Fillet- The tin lead junction interconnection of the surface mounted component contact to the land pattern of the substrate
Solder Mask- Dielectric material applied to the substrate surface for masking of circuit traces during solder processingsolder mask barrier
Solder Mask Barrier- Applies to the solder mask material reserved for containment of solder paste on land patterns during the reflow process
Solder Paste- A tin/lead alloy powder mixed with flux, solvent, and binders for application to SMT land patterns on the circuit substrateconformal coatings, fixtures, infrared, profiling, reflow, solder mask barrier, solder screen, vapour phase
Solder Plating- Electroplating of solder alloy to copper conductors or features on a substrate
Solder Screen- A pattern masked steel mesh used to deposit solder paste to contact land patterns on the substrate surface
SONET"Synchronous Optical NETwork"
SOPSmall Outline IC Package (japan)

"System On Package"
SOS"Silicon On Sapphire"
SOT"Small Outline Transistor/Diode Package"sot 23, sot 24, sot 89
SOT 23"Three Lead Small Outline Transistor/Diode Package"
SOT 24"Four Lead Small Outline Transistor/Diode Package"
SOT 89"Higher Power Surface Mounted Transistor Package"
Source Code- A collection of commands in a programming language that humans can understand, which is then translated into the computers language by a compilerreverse engineered code
Source Follower- The leading JFET amplifier. You see it used more than any other ]FET amplifier.
Source Language- Is the language in which the source program is writtenprogram statement
Source Program- Is the program as written by the programmer using a programming language; it must be assembled compiled or interpreted before it can be executed.
Source Regulation- The change in the regulated output voltage when the input of source voltage changes from its minimum to its maximum specified voltage
Space Analysis- Calculation of component area requirement and circuit density
Sparklies- Also known as impulse noise. Shows on picture as small black and white comet shape dots on screen. Commonly caused by dish being too sinall which causes the C/N ratio to be lower than the receiver`s FM detector threshold.
SPC"Stored Program Control"
Speech Recognition- Is the process of analysing a spoken word and comparing it with those known to the computer system
Speech Synthesiser- Is an output device that generates sound similar to human speech on receipt of digital signals
Speed Dial- Is a feature found both on PABXs and other equipment devices (telephone devices) allowing users to dial long or frequently used numbers by pressing just two or three buttons. Also called Abbreviated dialling.
Spillover- Usable (but often unwanted) signal reaching locations beyond defined Edge of Coverage.
Spooling- Is the temporary storage of input or output data on magnetic disk or tape as a means of compensating for the slow operating speeds of peripheral devices or when queuing different output streams to one device
Spot Beam- Beam of circular cross section covering a defined region of the Earth`s surface small in relation to global beam
Spring Action- Automatic retraction or return to normal position
Spring Loaded Test Probes- Test probe contacts designed to mate with leads or contact points provided on the circuit substrate surface
Sprite- Is an object in computer graphics. Typically a computer graphics system will allow the programmer to define the sprite`s shape speed and direction of movement and the system will be responsible for moving the sprite around the screen without further intervention from the programmer.
SRIC"Synchronous Rectification IC"
SSB"Single Side Band"ssbsc
SSBSC"Single Side Band Suppressed Carrier"
SSI"Small Scale Integration"
- Refers to integrated circuits with 10 or fewer integrated components
SSL"Secure Socket Layer"
SSMA"Spread Spectrum Multiple Access"
SSSA"Security Systems Suppliers Association"
SSTDMA"Satellite Switched Time Division Multiple Access"
Stack- Is a list where items are added to or deleted from the same end of the listreverse polish notation
Stand Off Voltage- This is a rating used in zener diode transient voltage suppressors
Standard Function- Is a subprogram provided by a compiler or other translator which carries out a task such as the computation of a mathematical function
Station Protectors- Designed for residential and small commercial telephone systems where a PBX or other switch is not in use
Stay Wiring Capacitance- The unwanted capacitance between connecting wires and ground
STD"Subscriber Trunk dialling"
Stepdown Transformer- A transformer with more primary turns than secondary turns. This results in less secondary voltage than primary voltage.
Stepped Solder - Solder paste deposited in multiple thickness to accommodate multistep soldering of selected devices
Stiff Current Source- A current source whoa internal resistance is at least 100 times larger than the load resistance
Stiff Voltage Divider- A voltage divider whose loaded output voltage is within 1 percent of its unloaded output voltage
Stiff Voltage Source- A voltage source which internal resistance is at least 100 times smaller than the load resistancevoltage regulator
STN"Super Twisted Nematic"
Storage- Often called Memory or Store. Is the part of a computer system where data and instructions are held.mass storage device
Store Location- Is the basic unit within a computer store capable of holding a single item of data. Also called a cell.address, address calculation, immediate addressing, shift, symbolic addressing
Stray Wiring Capacitance- The unwanted capacitance between connecting wires and ground
String- Is textual data in the form of a list of charactersstringy floppy
Stringy Floppy- Is a backing storage device consisting of a continuous loop of magnetic tape. This allows data recorded anywhere on the tape to be accessed eventually and hence some semblance of random access facilities can be offered.
Structured Programming- Is an orderly approach to programming which emphasises breaking large and complex tasks into successively smaller sections. Sometimes referred to as top down programming.algol 68, comal, modular programming
Sub Carrier- An information carrying wave which in tum modulates the main carrier in a communications system. Subcarriers are used for colour information TV audio independent audio and data transmission.scfm
Sub Program- Is a set of program instructions performing a specific task but which is not a complete program
Sub Satellite Point- The place on earth surface directly beneath a geostationary satellite
Subscriber- A telephone customerCDSL, dsl, dslam, idsl, ioca, isd, local loop, std, uadsl
Summer- An op amp circuit whose output voltage is the sum of the two or more input voltages
Super Computer- Is a very fast computer using parallel and massive multi processing (MMP), more memory, and sophisticated operating systems. Often used as a server in many industries.
Superposition- When you have several sources, you can determine the effect produced by each source acting alone and then add the individual effects, to get the total effect of all sources acting simultaneouslymixer
Surface Leakage Current - A reverse current that flows along the surface of a diode. It increases when you increase the reverse voltage.collector cutoff current
Surface Mounted Technology- The materials and process for contact attachment of electronic devices directly to the substrate surface
Surge Current- The large initial current that flows through the diodes of a rectifier. It is the direct result of charging the filter capacitor, which initially is uncharged.
Surge Protector- A device connected to a telephone line to prevent the voltage across the Me or between each wire of the line and earth from rising to a harmful level (also called `Surge Arrester`.)
Surveillance- Close observation, especially of a suspected spy or criminal
SVC"Switched Virtual Circuit"
SVGA"Super Video Graphics Array"
Swamped Amplifier- A CE stage with a feedback resistor in the emitter circuit. This feedback resistor is much larger than the ac resistance of the emitter diode.
SWF- Macromedia Flash (SWF) Macromedia Flash is a file format for creating and displaying vector-based images and animation
SWG"Standard Wire Gauge"
Switching Regulator- A linear regulator uses a transistor that operates in the linear region. A switching regulator uses a transistor that switches between saturation and cutoff.
Sylda- Dual payload launch adapter for Ariane
Symbian- Owned by ericsson matsushita motorola nokia psion - is responsible for developing epoc mobile OS for phones and pda`s.OPL
Symbol Table- Is the table maintained by it compiler or assembler relating names to machine addresses. Also called a name table.
Symbolic Addressing- Is a technique used in assembly language programming where the address of a store location is identified by means of a symbol rather than an absolute machine address
Syn/Sync"Synchronism Synchronising"
Syntax Analysis- Is the second stage during compilation where language statements are checked for compliance with the rules of the language
Syntax Programming Language- Is the set of rules for combining the elements of a characters) into permitted constructions (e.g. program statements)
Synthesizer- A device that creates sounds electronically through the use of voltage controlled amplifiers and filters. The settings for each sound are usually saved as presets.ADSR
System- The portion of the operating system that deals with access to and management of files and programs stored on disksystem crash, system x, systems analyst, systems program, systems programmer
System Crash- Occurs when the operating system ceases to be able to control the operation of the computer and human intervention is necessary in order to restart
System X- Type of digital telephone exchange in common use by BT as part of the PSIN
Systems Analyst- Is the person responsible for the analysis of a business system to assess its suitability for computer application
Systems Program- Is one of the programs that control the performance of a computer system (e.g. compiler or monitor)systems programmer
Systems Programmer- Is a programmer who writes systems software


[T] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter t that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [T]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
T/H"Track and Hold"
T1- industry body that creates network interconnection and interoperability standards for the United States (www.tl.org)
TAA- Korean telecommunications standards body (www.tta.or.kr)
Tab Devices- Tape automated (lead frame to silicon die) bonding process for low cost and high volume IC packaging
- Tab Retaining Points- A small cross section of the base material for the retention of individual substrate units in a panel format
Table- Is a data structure in the form of a rectangular arrangement of items in rows and columns (e.g. a two-dimensional array)decision table, electronic workbench, esd packaging, hashing, lookup table, lut, surveillance, symbol table
TACS"Total Access Communications System"
TAD"Telephone Answering Device"
TAM"Telephone Answering Machine"tam interface
TAM Interface- Fax feature allowing an answering machine to be connected to the same line as a fax machine and having the ability to discriminate between the two types of call
Tantalum Capacitor- A polarized electron (voltage) storing device having a tantalum dielectric for higher voltage applications
TAP"Test Access Point"tape and reel, tape cassette, tape drive
Tape And Reel- A continuous strip packaging furnished on a reel carrier for direct assembly machine processing
Tape Cassette- Is a device for holding magnetic tape. The tape is picked up without requiring manual threading. Both tape and cassette may be similar to those used in cosmetic tape recorders.
Tape Drive- Is the mechanism that transports the tape between spools across the read/write heads
TASI"Time Assignment Speech Interpolation"
TAT"TransAtlantic Telephone"
TBR"Time BReak"
TCC- Japanese telecommunications standards body (www.ttc.or.jp)
TCE- The linear thermal expansion per unit change in temperature
TCP"Transmission Control Protocol"tcp/ip
TCP/IP"Transmission Control Protocol/lnternet Protocol"
- Protocol necessary for Internet data transmissions
TDA- Time Domain reflectometer (or reflectometry)
TDD"Time Division Duplex"
- Part of 3G W CDMA. Transmission and reception are at the same frequency, at different times. Data rates will be lower than FDD, but TDD has a longer range.
TDMA"Time Division Multiple Access"tia/eia 136
TDSCDMA"Time Division Synchronous CDMA"
TDY"Temporary DutY"
TE"Transverse Electric"tear restraints, telephone recording adaptor, teleprocessing, teletone, teletype, teletypewriter, tem, temperature coefficient, tempest radiation, tent over vias, terminal, terminator, tespar, test data, test pad, tetra
Tear Restraints- Copper pattern retained in the comers of a flexible circuit substrate
Telephone Recording Adaptor- Is a device designed to record phone conversations and it connects the recorder with the telephone line
Teleprocessing- Is processing that is carried out from a remote terminal
Teletone- Let one portion of a user's voice which is intentionally sent back to the earpiece
Teletype- Is the trade name for a particular make of teletypewriter. The term is commonly but wrongly applied to any teletypewriter.teletypewriter
Teletypewriter- Is an input/output device consisting of a keyboard and a typewriterlike printer often combined with a paper tape punch and reader. It can be used either for direct communication with the computer or for the preparation of punched paper tape for subsequent input.keyboard
TEM"Transverse ElectroMagnetic"temperature coefficient, tempest radiation
Temperature Coefficient- The rate of change of a quantity with respect to the temperaturereference voltage
Tent Over Vias- The covering of via hole and pads by solder mask material
Terminal- Is the term used to describe any input/output device which is used to communicate with the computer from a remote site
Terminator- Is a specified value not normally expected in the data that is used to terminate a list of data items. Also called a rogue value.nt
Tespar- Time encoded digital signal processing and recognition
Test Data- Is data used to test a program or flowchart; as well as the data the expected results are specifieddry run
Test Pad- Contact area designated for probing by automatic test systems
TETRA"TErrestrial Trunked RAdio"
TFM"Time Frequency Multiplex"
TFT"Thinner Flatter Tube"

"Thin Film Transistor"
THD"Total Harmonic Distortion"
Thermal Cycles- Time between high and low temperature levels during static or dynamic test
Thermal Energy- Heat energy

Another definition of Thermal Energy:
Jeat Energy
Thermal Noise- Electrical noise that arises from the agitation of electrons in a conductor due to heat
Thermal Printer- is one using heat sensitive paper producing visible characters by the action of heated wires. Thermal Printers are also used for industrial printing.
Thermal Runaway- As a transistor heats, its junction temperature increases. This increases the collector current, which forces the junction temperature to increase further, producing more collector current, etc., until the transistor is destroyed.
Thermal Shutdown- A feature found in modem threetertninal IC regulators. When the regulator exceeds a safe operating temperature, the pass transistor is cut off and the output voltage goes to zero. When the device cools, the pass transistor is again turned on.
Thermistor- A device whoa resistance experiences large changes with temperature
Thevenin`s Theorem- A fundamental theorem that says any circuit driving a load can be converted to a single generator and series resistance
Third Approximation- An accurate approximation of a diode or transistor. Used for designs that need to take into account as many details as possible.
Third Generation- Is the generic term used to describe those machines in which the integrated circuit replaced the transistor as the basic component3gpp, itu, ntt docomo
Threshold- In an FM system the value of CNR at which the linear relationship between CNR and demodulation signal SNR breaks downthreshold extension, threshold voltage
Threshold Extension- Techniques for reducing the CNR value at which threshold effects occur
Threshold Voltage- The voltage that turns on an enhancement-mode MOSFET. At this voltage, an inversion layer connects the source to the drain.
Thyristor- A four-layer semiconductor device that acts as a latch. A type of electronic switch. It has two states which are triggered by another voltage or current. SCRs and switching transistors are examples of thyristors.breakover, holding current, silicon controlled rectifier, triac, trigger, unijunction transistor
TIA"Telecommunications Industry Association"
- A US standards development organisation
tia/eia 136, tia/eia 95b
TIA/EIA 136- ANSI version of the TDMA air interface standard. Replaces IS-136, second generation TDMA air interface standard.
TIA/EIA 95b- Third generation CDMA air interface standard. Replaces IS-95.
Tie- A dedicated private wire between two sites of the same organization allowing one site to access the PABX at the otheraltai tie clip microphone
Time Break Recall- One of two types of recall signal to the PABX from an extension when hold or transfer is required. Operates by breaking the local loop for a specific period of time.
Time Slice- Is the predetermined maximum length of time during which each program is allowed to run during multi-programming
Time Stamp- TAM feature where each ICM is annotated with time and little of receipt
Tiphon-Telecommunications and internet protocol harmonisation over networks
TMA"Telecommunications Managers Association"
To 5- Multi leaded metallic case transistor packagehalf transponder, passport photos
To 92- Multi leaded plastic case transistor package
Toll Saver- TAM feature. During remote access the owner may determine by the number of rings if there are any messages waiting
Tombstoning- The lifting of one side or end of a device from the substrate surface during reflow solder processing
Tone Switching- Allows users connected to pulse dialling exchanges to switch to tone dialling after the connection has been made so as to access tonemode services
TonerClinic- is the largest on-line retailer which provide quality ink & toner cartridges for inkjet printers, laser printers, multi-function printers, copiers & fax machines.
Tooling Holes- Non plated holes in the substrate used for alignment to machines and fixtures
Tooling Pins- Alignment posts that mate with tooling hole in the substrate
Touch Tone- A trademark of BT in the UK for DTMF dialling
Touch Up Tools- Solder tools designed for safe rework of solder joint connections
TQM"Total Quality Management"
Trace- Is a means of checking the logic of a program by inserting statements which cause the values of variables or other information to he printed out as the program is executedtrace width
Trace Width- The dimensional width of a conductor on substrate layernecking down
Track- Is the path on a tape or disk along which data is stored. On a tape there will be several tracks parallel to the edge of the tape. On a disk they are concentric circles.
Tractor Feed- Is a mechanism for advancing paper by use of perforations and a toothed wheel
Transaction File- Is a collection of records used in batch processing to update a master file. Also called an update file or change file.
Transaction Processing- Is the use of an online computer system to interrogate or update files as requested rather than batching such requests together for subsequent processing
Transconductance- The ratio of ac output current to ac input voltage. A measure of how effectively the input voltage controls the output current
Transfer Function- The inputs and outputs of an op amp circuit may be voltages, currents, or a combination of the two
Transformer- Device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by mutual induction, either reducing or increasing the voltage. Transformers are used very often and for different volts.RTL, stepdown transformer, varistor
Transistor- Discrete semiconductor for current switching and signal amplification
Translator- Is a computer program used to convert a program from one language to another (e.g. from a low level language to machine code or from machine code to low level language)directive, standard function
Transponder- Equipment inside a satellite responsible for transmitting a single channelaudio sub carrier, eclipse protected, eol, half transponder, medium power satellite
Tray Carriers- Partitioned packaging furnished to transport quad flat pack IC devices
Tree- Is a nonlinear data structure where each data item is thought of as a `node` and links from it to other items as `branches`
Triac- A thyristor that can conduct in both directions. Because of this, it is useful for controlling alternating current.
Trial And Error- Is a fundamental method of problem solving. It is characterised by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until success, or until the agent stops trying
Trigger- A sharp pulse of voltage and current that is used to turn on a thyristor or other switching devicetrigger current, trigger voltage
Trigger Current- The minimum current needed to turn on a thyristor
Trigger Voltage- The minimum voltage needed to turn on a thyristor
Triode- Triple diode, a diode with three contacts
Trip Point- The value of the input voltage that switches the output of a comparator or Schmitt trigger
Triple Band LNB- LNB capable of receiving all three bands of frequencies FSS DBS and Telecom about 10.7 GHz to 12.7 GHz. Usually worked in two range modes controlled by indoor unit.
Truncating- Is the process of approximating a number by ignoring all information beyond a set number of significant figures
Truncation- Loss of outermost side frequencies of an FM signal due to filtering. Shows as `tearing` effect of noise on video transients sharp vertical edges.truncation error
Truncation Error- Is the error introduced by truncation
TSG"Technical Specification Group"
TSI- Thermal Skin Imaging
TT&C"Telemetry Tracking and Control"
TTL"Transistor Transistor Logic"

Another definition of TTL:

"Time To Live"
- A field in the Internet Protocol header which indicates how many more hops this packet should be allowed to make before being discarded or returned
TTY"Teletype Terminal"
Tube- Acorn Computers` fast busback off, graphical display unit, magazine, tempest radiation, vdu
Tunnel Diodes- By increasing the doping level of a back diode, we can get breakdown to occur at 0V. Furthermore, the heavier doping distorts the forward curve. A diode with this graph is called a tunnel diode
Turnaround Document- Is a document that after being output by the computer can be used to record data; this data can then be input to the computer using a document reader
Turtle- Is a drawing device used by LOGO and related languages. It may be an electro mechanical device drawing on the floor (floor turtle) or may be simulated by graphics on a VDU screen (screen turtle)
TVRO"Television Receive Only"
Two State Output- This is the output voltage from a digital or switching circuit. It is referred to as two-state because the output has only two stable states, low and high. The region between the low and high voltages is unstable because the circuit cannot have any value in this range except temporarily when switching between states
TWT"Travelling Wave Tube"twta
TWTA"Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier"
TXE"Telephone Exchange Electronic"


[U] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter u that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [U]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
UADSL"Universal Assymetric Digital Subscriber Line"
UART"Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter"
UDL"Uniformly Distributed Load"
UHF"Ultra High Frequency"surveillance
ULA"Uncommitted Logic Array"
- Is an array of standard logic gates i.e. each element is identical manufactured on a single LSI chip
Ultrasound- Sound or other vibrations having an ultrasonic frequency, particularly as used in medical imaging
UMTS"Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems"arib, imttc
Underflow- Occurs when arithmetic operations produce results that are too small to store
Unijunction Transistor- Abbreviated UJT, this low power thyristor is useful in electronic timing, waveshaping, and control applications
Unity Gain Frequency- The frequency where the voltage gain of an op amp is 1. It indicates the highest usable frequency. It is important because it equals the gain bandwidth product.
Universal Curve- A solution in the form of a graph that solves a problem for a whole class of circuits. The universal curve for self-biased JFETs is an example.
Universal Fixture- Tooling designed for use on several differently shaped substrate assemblies
Unwanted Bypass Circuit- A circuit that appears in the base or collector sides of a transistor because of internal transistor capacitances and stray wiring capacitancestacircuit that appears in the base or collector sides of a transistor because of internal transistor capacitances and stray wiring capacitances
UPC"Universal Product Code"
- Is the standard bar code now adopted by European countries
Uplink- The earth to satellite signal path
Uploading- Uploading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to another, usually larger computer system
UPS"Uninterruptible Power Supply"upside down pnp bias
Upside Down PNP Bias- When you have a positive power supply and a pnp transistor, it is customary to draw the transistor upside-down. This is especially helpful when the circuit uses both npn and pnp transistors.
URL"Uniform Resource Locator"
USART"Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter"
USB"Universal Serial Bus"

"Upper Side Band"
UT"Universal Time" (GMT)utility program, utp
Utility Program- Is a systems program designed to perform a commonplace task such as the transfer of data from one storage device to another or sorting a set of dataddt
UTP"Unshielded Twisted Pair"


[V] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter v that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [V]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
V34 Plus V34 V32bis- It is a series of CCITT standards that defines modem operations and error correction
VADS"Value Added Data Service"vadsl
VADSL"Very High Rate ADSL"
Validation- Is an input control technique used to detect any data that is inaccurate incomplete or unreasonableraw data
VANS"Value Added Network Service"
Vape- Inhale and exhale the vapour produced by an electronic cigarette or similar device
Vapour Phase- A method of reflowing solder paste in a vapor created by boiling a unique chemical solutionmovpe
Varactor- A diode optimized for a reverse capacitance. The larger the reverse voltage, the smaller the capacitance
Variable- Is the identifier associated with a particular storage locationvariable length record, variable type
Variable Length Record- Is one where the number of bits (or characters) is not predetermined
Variable Type- Is the kind of data that is identified by the variable (e.g. alphanumeric integer floating point). The type may need to be declared when the variable is first used in a program so that adequate storage space is provided.
Varistor- A device that acts like two back-to back zener diodes. Used across the primary winding of a power transformer to prevent line spikes from entering the equipment
VARS"Volt Amps Reactive"
VBI"Vertical Blanking Interval"
VCR"Video Cassette Recorder"batteries alkaline, cctv repair, surveillance
VCX"Virtual Component eXchange"
VDSL"Very high rate DSL"
VDT"Video Dial Tone"
- An alternative term to describe ADSL
VDU"Visual Display Unit"
- Is a terminal device incorporating a cathode ray tube on which text can be displayed. It is usually used in conjunction with a keyboard
justifcation, operator`s console, screen editing, scrolling, turtle window
Vectoring- Is the technique of passing control in a computer program through an intermediate address or vector
Verirication- Is the act of checking transferred data usually at the stage of input to a computer by comparing copies of the data before and after transfer (e.g. repeating the keyboard operations to check that the data has been correctly transferred in a key to disk system or when punching paper tape)
VF"Vertical Frequency"vfo
VFO"Variable Frequency Oscillator"
VGA"Video Graphics Array"V34 Plus, V34, V32bis
VHF"Very High Frequency"spymaster, surveillance
Via Pad- A plated hole used to interconnect two or more circuit layers on a substrate
Video CD- Is a home video format and the first format for distributing films on standard 120 mm optical discs
Video Disk- Is a storage medium primarily used for the storage of television pictures for subsequent replay
VideoCrypt- Is a cryptographic, smartcard-based conditional access television encryption system that scrambles analogue pay-TV signals
Virtual Ground- A type of ground that appears at the inverting input of an op amp that uses negative feedback
Virtual Storage- Is a means of apparently extending main storage by allowing the programmer to access backing storage in the same way as immediate access store
VLBI"Very long Baseline Interferometry"
VLF"Very Low Frequency"
VLIW"Very Long Instruction Word"
VLSI"Very Large Scale Integration"
VNO"Virtual Network Operator"
VOC"Volatile Organic Compounds"
VOD"Video On Demand"
Voice Stress Phone- Are collectively a pseudoscientific technology that aims to infer deception from stress measured in the voice
Vox Voice Activation- Is commonly used in radio communications in which push to talk (PTT) is either inconvenient or not practical, thus hands-free communication is required. VOX only transmits the microphone signal when it has been determined the user is talking.
VOIP"Voice Over IP"
Volatile Memory- Memory which loses its data when power is removed. The RAM memory in the Emulator II is volatile, the data on the hard disk is non volatile.
Volatile Store- Is a store holding data only while power is supplied
Volt (Voltage)- A potential due to an electric field. One volt is defined as the potential difference across a resistor that is passing one ampere and dissipating one watt. 1 V = 1 W/A.
Voltage- Voltage seems very complicated but is very simple voltage is the flow of electronsdecibel voltage gain, measured voltage gain, predicted voltage gain, stiff voltage divider, stiff voltage source, voltage amplifier, voltage controlled device, Voltage Drop, voltage feedback, voltage follower, voltage gain, voltage regulator, voltage source, voltage switched lnb, voltage to current converter
Voltage Amplifier- An amplifier that has its circuit values selected to produce a maximum voltage gaininverting input
Voltage Controlled Device- A device like a JFET or MOSFET whose output is controlled by an input voltage
Voltage Drop- Voltage measured across resistors
Voltage Feedback- This is a type of feedback where the feedback signal is proportional to the output voltage
Voltage Follower- An op-amp circuit that uses non inverting voltage feedback. The circuit has a very high input impedance, a very low output impedance, and a voltage gain of 1. It is ideal for use as a buffer amplifier.
Voltage Gain- This is defined as the output voltage divided by the input voltage. Its value indicates how much the signal is amplified.buffer amplifier, compensating capacitor, decibel voltage gain, frequency response, loop gain, measured voltage gain, midband, miller`s theorem, mixer, op amp, overloading, phase splitter, predicted voltage gain, reference voltage, resonant frequency, unity gain frequency, voltage follower
Voltage Regulator- A device or circuit that holds the load voltage almost constant, even though the load current and source voltage are changing. Ideally, a voltage regulator is a stiff voltage source with an output or Thevenin resistance that approaches zero.reference voltage, ripple rejection
Voltage Source- Ideally, an energy source that produces a constant load voltage for any value of the load resistance. To a second approximation, it includes a small internal resistance in series with the source.stiff voltage source, voltage regulator
Voltage Switched LNB- An LNB that has a built in polarisation selector controlled by voltage level 13/18 volts from indoor unit
Voltage To Current Converter- A circuit that is equivalent to a controlled current source. The input voltage controls the current. The current is then constant and independent of the load resistance.
VPN"Virtual Private Network"
- A network that appears to be "private" but in fact uses the a PTO`s public network to create a closed user group thereby providing the convenience of a private network without the infrastructure costs normally associated with ii
VPS"Video Programming Signal"
- Faster than DRAM this is used by graphics cards
VRC"Vertical Redundancy Check"
VRRM"Maximum Repetitive Reverse Voltage"
VSAT"Very Small Aperture Terminal"
VSB"Vestigial Side Band"vsbsc
VSBSC"Vestigial Side Band Suppressed Carrier"
VSWR"Voltage Standing Wave Ratio"
- A measure of mismatch in a cable waveguide or antenna system
VTAM"Virtual Telecommunications Access Method"
VTH"Threshold Voltage"
VTR"Video Tape Recorder"


[W] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter w that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [W]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
Wall Plate- Used in homes to cover phone jacks
Wallwart- The AC or DC power adapter that plugs into the wall to power a device that has a lower voltage
WAN"Wide Area Network"wand
Wand- Is an input device used to read bar codes. It emits a narrow light beam and detects the bar code pattern by reflection
WAP"Wireless Application Protocol"
- A standard for delivery of standard desktop applications to mobile operating systems and wireless devices. WAP enabled phones are emerging allowing users to browse the net
WARC"World Administrative Radio Conference"
Warm Start- Is restarting a program following a stoppage without losing data from the previous run. This is contrasted with a cold start which runs the program from the normal starting point as if it had never been run before.
Watt- Watt is a unit of power. One watt is equal to one ampere of current under the pressure of one volt.

Another definition of Watt:
- An amount of energy used to continuously supply power to an electric circuit for one hour. For example, a lamp rated at 100 watts that was on for 3 hours would consume 300 watts of power.
Wattc"World Administrative Telephone and Telegraph Conference"
Wave Solder- Soldering of leaded and epoxy attached surface mounted devices by a controlled contact with a machine generated wave of molten solder alloysecondary wave solder
Waveguide- Metal pipe of specific diameter used in the feedhorn assembly to conduct microwave signalsomt, polariser, vswr
WCDMA"Wideband Code Division Multiple Access"fdd
WDM"Wavelength Division Multiplex"
Wegener- Proprietary system for subcarrier stereo transmission. Uses discrete lowlevel companded subcarders.panda
Weighting- Correction of SNR measurements to take into account such factors as bandwidth and annoyance value
Wien Bridge Oscillator- An RC oscillator consisting of an amplifier and a Wien bridge. This is the most widely used low-frequency oscillator. It is ideal for generating frequencies from 5 Hz to I MHz.
WIMPS"Windows Icons Mouse and Pulldown menus"
Winchester Drive- Is a disk drive that uses small size hard disks which are suitable for microcomputer systems
Window- Is either a part of a VDU screen which is specified in the program and is dedicated in its use or that portion of a large document currently visible on the VDU screenWindowing
Windowing- Windowing is a process which can narrow the spectrum and make it closer to what was expected. Multiplying by a window function (called 'windowing') suppresses glitches and so avoids the broadening of the frequency spectrum caused by the glitches.
WMO"World Meteorological Organisation"
Word- Is a collection of bits treated as a single unit by the central processorword length
Word Length- Is the number of bits in each word of a particular computer. In most computers this is fixed but in some it varies with the type of data being stored.
WORM"Write Once Read Many" times
WSI"Wafer Scale Integration"
WST"World Standard Teletext"wsts
WSTS"World Semiconductor Trade Statistics"
WTDM"Wavelength Time Division Multiplex"
WWW"World Weather Watch"

"World Wide Web"


[X] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter x that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [X]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
X/Y- An antenna mount permitting independent steering about two orthogonal axes not necessarily related to azimuth or elevation
X.25- An ITU defined general purpose packet switching protocol
- Xerographic Printer- Is one using electrostatic techniques as in many photocopiers
Xoff"Transmitter Off"
Xon"Transmitter On"
XPD"CrossPolar Discrimination"
XPI"CrossPolar Interference"


[Y] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter y that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [Y]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
YAG"Yttrium Aluminium Garnet"
YIG"Yttrium Iron Garnet"
YIQ- Luminance plus two colour difference components (NTSC)
YUV- Luminance plus two colour difference components (PAL & SECAM)


[Z] Presenting a list of electronic terms starting with letter z that are available for more detailed lookup for their definitions or abbreviation explanation. All terms are listed in alphabetical order for easy browsing.

Electronic Acronyms And Terms for [Z]DescriptionOther Electronic Terms Somewhat Related;
Zener Effect- Sometimes called high-field emission, this occurs when the intensity of the electric field becomes high enough to dislodge valence electrons in a reverse biased diode.breakdown region, breakdown voltage
Zener Resistance- The bulk resistance of a zener diode. It is very, small compared to the current-limiting resistance in series with the zener diode.
Zener Voltage- The breakdown voltage of a zener diode. This is the approximate voltage out of a zener voltage regulator.reference voltage
Zero Adjustments- The adjustment of a display that results are zero on the display corresponding to a non-zero signal
Zero Crossing- The point where the polarity of an electrical or sampled signal changes from positive to negative (or vice-versa) as it passes through zero. A zero crossing provides a convenient point to splice two sounds because the levels of the two splice points are the same at zero volts.
ZIF"Zero Insertion Force"
- Sockets used for large CPUs. Lifting a handle enables you to remove the processor.
Zinc Whisker- Are very small parts of elemental zinc creating small objects that are electroplated or galvanized with zinc. Parts that can create zinc whiskers include steel parts, sheet metal, railings, and few other materials that are not necessarily metal objects.
ZIP- The common standard for compressing files so that they take up less space. Zipped files have the extension .zip and are compressed and decompressed using shareware utilities such as Winzip and PKZIP.esd packaging
Zone Beam- Bearn pattern usually a shaped beam intermediate between hemisphere and spot